Mahidol Awards: Rotavirus, prozac & depression | Bangkok Post: learning

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Mahidol Awards: Rotavirus, prozac & depression

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Discoverers of rotavirus & antidepressant Prozac as well as psychiatrist working on depression given the award this year. 

rotavirus

Photo above of the rotavirus, the main cause of life-threatening diarrhoea in children worldwide. Included in this year's Prince Mahidol Award is one of the doctors that discovered the rotovirus back in 1973. Photo below of the winners of this year's award.

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MAHIDOL AWARDS: US, Aussie academics recognised


Mahidol Award WinnersTwo American professors and one Australian have been named the winners of Prince Mahidol Award 2011.

Aaron T Beck, a professor emeritus of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania, and David T Wong, an adjunct professor of Neurobiology at the Department of Psychiatry of the Indiana University School of Medicine are the co-winners in the field of medicine.

Another winner solely in the field of public health is Ruth F Bishop, a professorial fellow at the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Melbourne.

Prof Beck has been recognised by the Prince Mahidol Award judging committee for his outstanding contribution in the development of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

Prof Beck was the first person to successfully develop the CBT and use it on patients suffering from depression, said Clinical Professor Udom Kachintorn, dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Siriraj Hospital, as vice-president of the Prince Mahidol Award Foundation.

Developed in the early 1960s by Prof Beck, CBT has been widely used by psychiatrists and psychotherapists to treat depression.

CBT has been used on more than 120 million people suffering from major depression and has helped reduce suicide rates. Prof Beck has become recognised as the father of CBT.

Prof Wong has been selected a co-winner for his outstanding contribution in the discovery of fluoxetine, an antidepressant approved by the US Food and Drug Administration under the tradename Prozac in January 1988.

The drug has cured hundreds of millions of patients with depression around the world. Fluoxetine has also become the basic model in the development of many antidepressants.

Prof Bishop, meanwhile, won the award for her outstanding work on Rotavirus and vaccine against Rotavirus diarrhoea

She discovered in 1973 that diarrhoea in children, which occurs in those younger than six years old around the world, is mainly caused by Rotavirus.

(Source: Bangkok Post, MAHIDOL AWARDS, US, Aussie academics recognised, 15/12/2011, link)

Medical Vocabulary

Prince Mahidol Award - awards given each year to medical doctors and scientists around the world for outstanding research or performance in medicine and in public health, the prize includes a medal, a certificate and $100,000 US dollars  (See website)
Mahidol Awards - same as "Prince Mahidol Award"
award - a prize or a sum of money that is given to someone following an official decision รางวัล

recognised -
to be given an award for some great achievement in the past or for one's whole life work 
recognised by the Prince Mahidol Award judging committee

David T Wong - the chemist who discovered the antidepressant Prozac (See Wikipedia)

antidepressant -
drugs that people take to control and reduce depression (See Wikipedia and List)
fluoxetine - the most antidepressant that is most famous and has had the greatest impact (See Wikipedia and pronunciation)
Prozac - the popular name for "fluoxetine" that everyone knows

depression - "a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings and physical well-being. Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, or problems concentrating, remembering details or making decisions; and may contemplate or attempt suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, or aches, pains or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may be present. Depressed mood is a normal reaction to certain life events, a symptom of some medical conditions (e.g., Addison's disease, hypothyroidism) and treatments (e.g., hepatitis C drug therapy), and a feature of certain psychiatric syndromes" (See Wikipedia on depression and mood disorders)

treat depression

suffering - physical or mental pain or problems ความทุกข์ทรมาน
patients suffering from depression.

Ruth F Bishop - "a leading member of the team that discovered the human rotavirus. In 1973, she, along with G. Davidson (RCH), and collaborators I.Holmes & B.Ruck (University of Melbourne) examined cells from the intestines of children with gastroenteritis. Intestinal biopsies were taken at The Royal Children’s Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, and sent to Ian Holmes and Brian Ruck (University of Melbourne) to be examined by electron-microscopy.  Under the electron microscope cells were seen to be infected with viruses, which were originally named duovirus because they were seen in the duodenum and had a double capsid. The name rotavirus was later suggested by the Irishman, Thomas Henry Flewett, because of the round, wheel-like shape of virus particles. Rotaviruses cause diarrhoea and vomiting in young children and are a leading cause of death in the developing countries" (See Wikipedia)

rotavirus
- the most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children, often called "stomach flu", "by the age of five, nearly every child in the world has been infected with rotavirus at least once. However, with each infection, immunity develops, and subsequent infections are less severe; adults are rarely affected, ...accounts for up to 50% of hospitalisations for severe diarrhoea in infants and children,  its importance is still not widely known within the public health community, particularly in developing countries. Rotavirus is usually an easily managed disease of childhood, but worldwide nearly 500,000 children under five years of age still die from rotavirus infection each year and almost two million more become severely ill. In the United States, before initiation of the rotavirus vaccination programme, rotavirus caused about 2.7 million cases of severe gastroenteritis in children, almost 60,000 hospitalisations, and around 37 deaths each year. Public health campaigns to combat rotavirus focus on providing oral rehydration therapy for infected children and vaccination to prevent the disease" (See Wikipedia)
vaccine - a substance which contains a form that is not harmful of a virus or bacterium (= extremely small organism) and which is given to a person or animal to prevent them from getting the disease which the virus or bacterium causes วัคซีน (See Wikipedia)
vaccine against Rotavirus diarrhoea  

Aaron T. Beck -
(born July 18, 1921) "an American psychiatrist and a professor emeritus in the department of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania. He is widely regarded as the father of cognitive therapy, and his pioneering theories are widely used in the treatment of clinical depression. Beck also developed self-report measures of depression and anxiety including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Beck Youth Inventories" (See Wikipedia)

cognitive therapy -
"a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck, one of the therapeutic approaches within the larger group of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT),  helpa the patient overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking, behavior, and emotional responses. This involves helping patients develop skills for modifying beliefs, identifying distorted thinking, relating to others in different ways, and changing behaviors. ... Beck initially focused on depression and developed a list of "errors" in thinking that he proposed could maintain depression, including arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, over-generalization, and magnification (of negatives) and minimization (of positives). A simple example may illustrate the principle of how CT works: having made a mistake at work, a man may believe, "I'm useless and can't do anything right at work." Strongly believing this then tends to worsen his mood. The problem may be worsened further if the individual reacts by avoiding activities and then behaviorally confirming the negative belief to himself. As a result, any adaptive response and further constructive consequences become unlikely, which reinforces the original belief of being "useless." In therapy, this example could be identified as a self-fulfilling prophecy or "problem cycle," and the efforts of the therapist and client would be directed at working together to change it. This is done by addressing the way the client thinks and behaves in response to similar situations and by developing more flexible ways to think and respond, including reducing the avoidance of activities. If, as a result, the patient escapes the negative thought patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the negative feelings may be relieved over time" (See Wikipedia)

cognitive behavioural therapy
(CBT) - a broad category of different kinds of treatments that "aims to solve problems concerning dysfunctional emotions, behaviors and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure in the present, there is empirical evidence that CBT is effective for the treatment of a variety of problems, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders" (See Wikipedia)

development
- the gradual growth and formation of something
therapy - a treatment which helps someone feel better, grow stronger, etc., especially after an illness การบำบัดโรค
the development of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

suicide - the act of ending your own life, killing yourself (See Wikipedia)
suicide rates
- the number of people per 100,000 in a society who kill themselves (See Wikipedia's list of countries with the highest suicide rates)
reduce suicide rates


academics - professors and lecturers at universities and colleges
Aussie - Australian
Aussie academics recognised

professor emeritus - the title given to a retired professor
adjunct professor - a part-time professor hired on a contractual basis

fellow -
a specially appointed or elected member of an academic or professional organization
professorial fellow at the Department of Paediatrics

public health -
"the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" (See Wikipedia)
neurobiology - 
the specialization in biology that deals with the nervous system of humans and other animals, also called "neuroscience" (See Wikipedia)
paediatrics - the specialization in medicine that deals with the diseases and medical conditions of children (See Wikipedia)

psychiatry - the specialization in medicine that deals with psychological that effect a person's behaviour (See Wikipedia)
psychiatrists
psychotherapists


co-winner -
two or more people who win a prize at the same time
the field of medicine - the knowledge and practice of curing diseases and medical conditions that people get (what doctor's do)
co-winners in the field of medicine

outstanding - clearly very much better than what is usual ยอดเยี่ยม, ดีเด่น
contribution - help produce something or help make something successful; something that you do that helps to achieve something or to make it successful ผลงาน,การช่วยเหลือ

dean - a senior official at a college or university อธิการบดี
Clinical Professor Udom Kachintorn, dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Siriraj Hospital, as vice-president of the Prince Mahidol Award Foundation.

contribution - something you do to help make a project, activity or society in general successful 
outstanding contribution -
a very good and helpful contribution
outstanding contribution
in the discovery of fluoxetine


Food and Drug Administration (FDA) -
the government agency that checks drugs and food to make sure it is safe before it can be sold
tradename - the name of a company's product

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