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Your skin's worst enemies

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Things that make you look old quickly: Sun, smoking, no sleep, dry weather, dust, air pollution & changes in weight. 

Also read past Bangkok Post articles on skin care here: #1, #2, #3 and #4.

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Health
IN THE MIRROR

The five worst enemies of skin

30/08/2012
Dr Nantapat Supapannachart

It's commonly said that at age 20 you have the skin you inherited, at 40 the skin you deserve and at 60 the skin you earned. So you may be born with the best skin, but your lifestyle - internal and external, personal and social - decides what you deserve and earn. Most of it is under your control, so take note.

ENEMY #1: SUN

What can the sun do to the skin, and how would you treat it?

It can't be emphasised enough that the sun is one of the greatest enemies of unprotected skin as it causes irregular texture, wrinkles, pigmentation and dullness. Although you need vitamin D from sunlight, we all know too much of the sun is destructive to the skin.

UVA rays from the sun can penetrate deep into your skin and damage collagen, which is the protein that holds your skin together in a firm and smooth way. Overexposure to the sun's rays can also result in hyperpigmentation or even painful sunburn. The best way to avoid it is to keep away from the sun, or to use a good sunscreen with UVA, UVB and PA++. However, if you've already got a bad burn, then you may need to see a dermatologist and usually applying a prescribed cream rich in Vitamin A should be helpful.

To treat pigmentation or discolouration, we can use a laser that emits light in a single wavelength to remove unwanted pigment. It's particularly effective in treating discrete lesions.

ENEMY #2: TOBACCO

What are the effects of tobacco on the skin and what are the treatments to reverse it? 

Smoking is one of the worst things for your skin as it deprives the skin of oxygen, causing some smokers to look a pale grey colour and have low skin-healing abilities. Smokers are also much more likely to have dehydrated skin that suffers a chronic deficiency of vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C, which is required for the production of collagen.

Obviously, start with minimising smoking. Other things you could do are avoiding dehydration of your skin by drinking plenty of water and using a proper moisturiser. We can also take vitamin C and antioxidant supplements to improve the skin's wrinkles and use lasers to stimulate collagen production. You may also want to get a regular skin detox along with infrared, lymphatic massage or oxygen therapy.

ENEMY #3: LACK OF SLEEP

How does a lack of sleep take its toll on our skin? 

Whatever the reason, be it stress, being overworked, or a hectic social life, if you aren't getting enough sleep, it's going to be reflected in the condition of your skin. You're going to see sallow skin and puffy eyes after a few nights of missed sleep. Even worse, chronic sleep loss can lead to fine lines and dark circles under the eyes

The only way to get rid of these, or maintain results of any treatment, is to work on your sleeping patterns. For those of you who feel that even after getting rest, you continue to receive comments on how tired you look, then maybe you have developed dark circles.

An eye-lift treatment can be used to help improve the drainage around the eye area. Vascular laser treatment works to get rid of the dark appearance. Fillers may also be needed to plump up the hollowness under the eyes, and is a great option for people who want little downtime. The results last about a year.

ENEMY #4: CHANGE IN WEIGHT

What does a shift in weight have to do with the skin? 

Our skin isn't an elastic band, so a drastic weight gain is likely to result in stretch marks and a sudden weight-loss in sagging skin. That's why it's always recommended to try to maintain a stable weight, avoid yo-yo diets, and lose weight slowly and steadily.

If your stretch marks are still in the early stages then vascular laser treatment can be used to reduce inflammation. To treat stretch marks that have already developed, we can use sublative radio frequency to stimulate the production of collagen and elastin in the dermal layer of the skin, where stretch marks are formed.

If you are not ready for laser therapy, then a vitamin A acid cream may be helpful. For sagging skin, Thermage and Ulthera work well. These use radiofrequency and thermal-coagulation to tighten the skin.

ENEMY #5: WEATHER AND ENVIRONMENT


What effects does the environment have on our skin? 

Dry weather, polluted air, a dusty environment and an internally stressful body environment are harmful to the skin. These can cause damage to skin cells, causing deterioration of the skin's support structures, decreasing collagen.

Air pollutants can interfere with the skin's ability to regulate moisture levels - the skin may become dry and scaly or the pores may close, causing pimples and blackheads. Free radical damage accelerates the process of ageing. Stress can cause dull skin, fine lines from frowning, and also dryness, as stress reduces the lipid barrier on the skin, which works as a natural moisturiser.

If you have dry skin, do not over-wash your face - use only water when there's no make-up to be removed. Use thick moisturisers that will keep your skin moist all day, and wrinkles caused by dryness should eventually disappear. Antioxidants - particularly vitamins A, C and E - can help to block damage caused by free radicals as well as improve fine lines. Chemical peels also help improve and remove fine lines and wrinkles.

Dr Nantapat Supannachart is an American board-certified dermatologist and laser surgeon. Call 080-500-0123 or visit www.apexprofoundbeauty.com

(Source: Bangkok Post, Health, INTHEMIRROR, The five worst enemies of skin, 30/08/2012, Dr Nantapat Supapannachart, link


Skincare Vocabulary

skin - ผิวหนัง (See Wikipedia)
skin care - taking care of your skin so it looks nice, washing, applying lotions, creams, etc (See Wikipedia and List)

sunscreen
- a cream rubbed into the skin to prevent sunburn; a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin exposed to sunlight and thus helps protect against sunburn (See Wikipedia)

sunburn - when a person stays outdoors too long with with sunlight hitting the skin which damages the skin red and hurt, "a burn to living tissue, such as skin, which is produced by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun's rays. Usual mild symptoms in humans and animals include red or reddish skin that is hot to the touch, general fatigue, and mild dizziness. An excess of UV radiation can be life-threatening in extreme cases. Exposure of the skin to lesser amounts of UV radiation will often produce a suntan" (See Wikipedia)

UV radiation - ultraviolet light or radiation, invisible to the human eye, causes sunburn and contributes to skin aging and cancer, "electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10 nm to 400 nm, and energies from 3eV to 124 eV" (See Wikipedia)

UVA - one type of UV radiation: Ultraviolet A, long wave, or black light, wavelength: 400 nm–315 nm (See Wikipedia)
UVB - one type of UV radiation: Ultraviolet B or medium wave, wavelength: 315 nm–280 nm (See Wikipedia)

vitamin A - a vitamin needed by the retina of the eye and for skin health, an antioxidant (See Wikipedia)
vitamin C- needed for production of collagen, an antioxidant (See Wikipedia)
vitamin D - exposure of skin to sunlight produces this vitamin, important in maintaining skeletal calcium balance in body  (See Wikipedia)
vitamin E an antioxidant as well as other functions (See Wikipedia)

free radicals - "an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron; in the body it is usually an oxygen molecule that has lost an electron and will stabilize itself by stealing an electron from a nearby molecule; in the body free radicals are high-energy particles that ricochet wildly and damage cells" (See Wikipedia)

Free Radical Theory of Aging (FRTA) - the theory that living things age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time (See Wikipedia)

antioxidant - "a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. When the chain reaction occurs in a cell, it can cause damage or death to the cell. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions" (See Wikipedia)

blackheads - "a yellow or blackish bump or plug on the skin. A blackhead is a type of acne vulgaris. Contrary to the common belief that it is caused by poor hygiene, blackheads are caused by excess oils that have accumulated in the sebaceous gland's duct. The substance found in these bumps mostly consists of keratin and modified sebum (an oily secretion of the sebaceous gland), which darkens as it oxidizes. Clogged hair follicles, where blackheads often occur, reflect light irregularly to produce a blackhead's black hue" (See Wikipedia)

wrinkle - lines that appear on a person's skin when they get older or when the skin is exposed for long periods to the sun (See Wikipedia )

collagen - a type of protein that gives connective tissue its strength and flexibility (See Wikipedia)
elastin - a yellow protein that is the most important part of elastic connective tissue brittle when dry but flexible and elastic when wet (See Wikipedia)

connective tissue - the cells and tissue in the body that hold things together (See Wikipedia)
tissue - a group of cells that perform the same special body function (See Wikipedia)

It's commonly said that ... - people often say this; many people say this; people say this all the time

inherited - you have it because it comes from your parents via your genes (example: you inherited your red hair from your mother) 
deserve
- you got it because you did something good to get it (example: you deserve your bonus, because you worked hard all year)
earned
- you got it because as a reward for hard work or as pay at your job (example: A salary is earned by working eight hours a day, five days a week.)
lifestyle
- the living conditions and things people do everyday (fashion, home decoration, pets, cooking, music, tv, movies, garden, etc) รูปแบบการดำเนินชีวิต

internal
- inside; existing or happening inside a person, object, organisation, place or country ภายใน
external - outside

personal
(adjective) - in one person
social
(adjective) - in a group of people

under your control
- you control it (not other people)
take note -
listen carefully to this and remember it

It's commonly said that at age 20 you have the skin you inherited, at 40 the skin you deserve and at 60 the skin you earned. So you may be born with the best skin, but your lifestyle - internal and external, personal and social - decides what you deserve and earn. Most of it is under your control, so take note.

ENEMY #1: SUN

emphasise -
say or show that something is important 
It can't be emphasised enough

unprotected skin

regular - with an even and smooth surface
irregular - not regular (with an uneven and rough surface)

texture - the quality of something by touch เนื้อ
irregular texture

pigmentation -
the color in people's skin (being darker and not white)
hyperpigmentation - too much pigmentation

dull (adjective) - not bright or shiny มัว, เก่า,  หมอง  
dullness (noun) - the condition of not being bright or shiny

destructive
- causing great damage or harm ซึ่งเป็นการทำลาย
destructive to the skin
too much of the sun is destructive to the skin

What can the sun do to the skin, and how would you treat it? It can't be emphasised enough that the sun is one of the greatest enemies of unprotected skin as it causes irregular texture, wrinkles, pigmentation and dullness. Although you need vitamin D from sunlight, we all know too much of the sun is destructive to the skin.

UVA rays from the sun
penetrate
deep into your skin

damage collagen
the protein that holds your skin together in a firm and smooth way

Overexposure to the sun's rays
hyperpigmentation


UVB
PA++
.

dermatologist
- a skin doctor
prescribed - when a doctor writes out medicine for you to take, on an official piece of paper, when presented a pharmacy supplies you with the medicine สั่งยา

rich - with a lot of something อุดมไปด้วย
rich in Vitamin A

applying a prescribed cream rich in Vitamin A should be helpful

UVA rays from the sun can penetrate deep into your skin and damage collagen, which is the protein that holds your skin together in a firm and smooth way. Overexposure to the sun's rays can also result in hyperpigmentation or even painful sunburn. The best way to avoid it is to keep away from the sun, or to use a good sunscreen with UVA, UVB and PA++. However, if you've already got a bad burn, then you may need to see a dermatologist and usually applying a prescribed cream rich in Vitamin A should be helpful.

discolouration
- changing the colour (from the original natural colour to another unnatural colour)

emits light in a single wavelength
remove - to take something away เอาออกจาก
remove unwanted pigment.

lesion -
an area of damaged skin or damaged part of the body; a wound
discrete -
separate from others (not part of a group)
discrete lesions - separate wounds (not part of a group of wounds)

effective
- works well, gets the job done; producing the result that was intended ได้ผลดี
particularly effective - works especially well
particularly effective in treating discrete lesions

To treat pigmentation or discolouration, we can use a laser that emits light in a single wavelength to remove unwanted pigment. It's particularly effective in treating discrete lesions.


ENEMY #2: TOBACCO

deficiency - not having enough of something you need
chronic
- (of a disease or pain) serious and lasting for a long time เป็นประจำ

chronic deficiency - not having enough of something you need for a long time
a chronic deficiency of vitamins and minerals

reverse - to change; to go backwards and change or undo something that has already been done เปลี่ยนแปลง
reverse effects of  
treatments to reverse effect of tobacco on the skin

deprive - not getting of something that is needed
deprives the skin of oxygen


pale - describes someone's face or skin if it has less colour than usual, for example when they are ill or frightened, or if it has less colour than people generally have ซีด
causing some smokers to look a pale grey colour

healing - the process of a wound or cut getting better and developing skin or a scar to cover up the wound (See Wikipedia)
have low skin-healing abilities

dehydrated
- lost water from your body สูญเสียน้ำจากร่างกาย (ทางการแพทย์)
dehydrated skin

What are the affects of tobacco on the skin and what are the treatments to reverse it?  Smoking is one of the worst things for your skin as it deprives the skin from oxygen, causing some smokers to look a pale grey colour and have low skin-healing abilities. Smokers are also much more likely to have dehydrated skin that suffers a chronic deficiency of vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C, which is required for the production of collagen.

minimising

start with minimising smoking

plenty
- having more than enough of what you need to live อุดมสมบูรณ์
drinking plenty of water

proper
- actual or real จริง (พระราชพิธีพระราชทานเพลิงพระศพจริง)
using a proper moisturiser

improve - to make better ทำให้ดีขึ้น
antioxidant supplements to improve the skin's wrinkle

stimulate - act to increase activity, growth, and development กระตุ้น
lasers to stimulate collagen production

detox - a treatment to remove poisons and harmful substances from the body  (examples: drug detox, alcohol detox)
get a regular skin detox

infrared, lymphatic massage

therapy
- a treatment which helps someone feel better, grow stronger, etc., especially after an illness การบำบัดโรค
oxygen therapy

Obviously, start with minimising smoking. Other things you could do are avoiding dehydration of your skin by drinking plenty of water and using a proper moisturiser. We can also take vitamin C and antioxidant supplements to improve the skin's wrinkles and use lasers to stimulate collagen production. You may also want to get a regular skin detox along with infrared, lymphatic massage or oxygen therapy.

ENEMY #3: LACK OF SLEEP

lack - does not have ขาดแคลน
lack of sleep

toll - the number of people killed or injured in an accident, battle, attack, etc
take its toll on - damage, cause harm and injury

How does a lack of sleep take its toll on our skin? 

reason - an explanation of an event, why an event happened เหตุ ; เหตุผล ; สาเหตุ
stress - a feeling of worry and tension from difficulties in life; when you worry and think too much about problems and have a difficult life

hectic
- very busy and fast วุ่นวาย
hectic social life

reflected in the condition of your skin

sallow -
an unhealthy pale yellow look
sallow skin


puffy - big, round and light; when a part of the body is large and swollen
puffy eyes - (See Wikipedia)

missed - not doing or getting something that you usually do or get (example: Today I missed the morning train I take to work.)
a few nights of missed sleep

chronic -
for a long time
chronic sleep loss


fine lines
- very thin lines
dark circles under the eyes - (See Wikipedia)

Whatever the reason, be it stress, being overworked, or a hectic social life, if you aren't getting enough sleep, it's going to be reflected in the condition of your skin. You're going to see sallow skin and puffy eyes after a few nights of missed sleep. Even worse, chronic sleep loss can lead to fine lines and dark circles under the eyes

get rid of

results - what is produced in the end by an activity or task
treatment - the process of providing medical care การรักษา
results of a treatment

maintain
- to keep; keep in good condition รักษา
maintain results of a treatment
maintain results of any treatment

sleeping patterns
work on your sleeping patterns

The only way to get rid of these, or maintain results of any treatment, is to work on your sleeping patterns. For those of you who feel that even after getting rest, you continue to receive comments on how tired you look, then maybe you have developed dark circles.

face-lift -
surgical removal of wrinkles from face to make a person look younger (See Wikipedia)
eye-lift treatment

drainage - the system of water or waste liquids flowing away from somewhere into the ground or down pipes การระบายน้ำ
improve the drainage around the eye area

vascular - related to "blood vessels"
vascular laser treatment

filler -
dermal filler, "prescription products used to treat fine lines and wrinkles, plump lips, and repair or improve other facial imperfections, like hollow cheeks or scars" (See Source)

hollow
(adjective) - empty; not having anything inside; lacking volume
hollowness (noun)
hollowness under the eyes

plump
- fat
plump up -
fatten, add volume  
plump up
the hollowness under the eyes

downtime - 1. rest time when you are not working; 2. when machines and factory are not working and not producing goods
people who want a little downtime

option - choice ตัวเลือก ทางเลือก
a great option for people who want a little downtime

last - continue to exist; continue for this time
the results last about a year.

An eye-lift treatment can be used to help improve the drainage around the eye area. Vascular laser treatment works to get rid of the dark appearance. Fillers may also be needed to plump up the hollowness under the eyes, and is a great option for people who want little downtime. The results last about a year.

ENEMY #4: CHANGE IN WEIGHT

stretch
- to cause something to reach, often as far as possible, in a particular direction ขยายออก, ยืดออก
stretch marks - marks on your skin from the skin stretching, for example on the stomach from pregnancy (See Wikipedia)

drastic - with big effect มีผลกระทบอย่างใหญ่หลวง
a drastic weight gain is likely to result in stretch marks

sagging - hangs down loosely, has no energy, cannot stand up
sagging skin
a sudden weight-loss is likely to result in sagging skin

stable - not changing frequently and not likely to suddenly become worse คงที่, มั่นคง ไม่เปลี่ยนแปลง
stable weight
maintain a stable weight

yo-yo - a toy on a string that goes up and down over and over again (See Wikipedia)
diets
- 1. a plan to lose weight by eating less food; 2. the food and drink usually taken by a person or group 

yo-yo diets - meaning: starting and stopping a diet over and over again
avoid yo-yo diets

shift - change
shift in weight

elastic band
Our skin isn't an elastic band

steadily
- the same amount all the time without stopping; not changing the amount
lose weight slowly and steadily

What does a shift in weight have to do with the skin?  Our skin isn't an elastic band, so a drastic weight gain is likely to result in stretch marks and a sudden weight-loss in sagging skin. That's why it's always recommended to try to maintain a stable weight, avoid yo-yo diets, and lose weight slowly and steadily.

inflammation - a red, painful and often swollen area in or on a part of your body การอักเสบ, การติดเชื้อ

layer
- a thin sheet of a substance; a level of material, such as a type of rock or gas, which is different from the material above or below it ชั้น
dermal layer of the skin- Same as "dermis"

thermal - relating to or caused by heat ที่เกี่ยวกับความร้อน
thermal-coagulation

If your stretch marks are still in the early stages then vascular laser treatment can be used to reduce inflammation. To treat stretch marks that have already developed, we can use sublative radio frequency to stimulate the production of collagen and elastin in the dermal layer of the skin, where stretch marks are formed. If you are not ready for laser therapy, then a vitamin A acid cream may be helpful. For sagging skin, Thermage and Ulthera work well. These use radiofrequency and thermal-coagulation to tighten the skin.

ENEMY #5: WEATHER AND ENVIRONMENT


environment - the area around you (example: air-conditioning can affect the air you breathe in an office environment)
a dusty environment

polluted air

deterioration - falling apart, condition getting worse over time
deterioration of the skin's support structures

What effects does the environment have on our skin?    Dry weather, polluted air, a dusty environment and an internally stressful body environment are harmful to the skin. These can cause damage to skin cells, causing deterioration of the skin's support structures, decreasing collagen.

fine lines - very thin lines
frown

barrier - anything that prevents people from being together or understanding each other อุปสรรค
lipid barrier

natural - found in nature (not made in a factory by humans) ตามธรรมชาติ
moist - containing water; slightly wet เปียกชื้น
natural moisturiser

moisture - (noun) a small amount of water or another liquid in the air, on the surface of something, or in a substance
moisturise (verb) - add moisture to skin
moisturiser (noun) - complex mixtures of chemical agents specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable, by increasing its hydration (water content) by reducing evaporation (See Wikipedia)

interfere - to deliberately become involved in a situation and try to influence the way that it develops, although you have no right to do this การจงใจแทรกแซง
regulate - to control an activity officially by using rules ควบคุม

air pollutants can interfere with the skin's ability to regulate moisture levels

scaly -
hard and tough skin (like the hard skin of an animal such as a reptile, snake or lizard)
dry and scaly

the pores may close, causing pimples and blackheads

accelerate - going faster and faster
process - a series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result แนวทางปฏิบัติ, กระบวน, วิธีการ
ageing - growing older
free radical damage accelerates the process of ageing

fine lines from frowning
stress reduces the lipid barrier on the skin, which works as a natural moisturiser

Air pollutants can interfere with the skin's ability to regulate moisture levels - the skin may become dry and scaly or the pores may close, causing pimples and blackheads. Free radical damage accelerates the process of ageing. Stress can cause dull skin, fine lines from frowning, and also dryness, as stress reduces the lipid barrier on the skin, which works as a natural moisturiser.

eventually - at the end of a period of time or at the end of a process ในที่สุด

chemical peels

moisturisers that will keep your skin moist all day
wrinkles caused by dryness should eventually disappear

block - to stop something from moving through or along something else กีดขวาง ปิดกั้น
block damage caused by free radicals  

If you have dry skin, do not over-wash your face - use only water when there's no make-up to be removed. Use thick moisturisers that will keep your skin moist all day, and wrinkles caused by dryness should eventually disappear. Antioxidants - particularly vitamins A, C and E - can help to block damage caused by free radicals as well as improve fine lines. Chemical peels also help improve and remove fine lines and wrinkles.

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