Face of Richard III | Bangkok Post: learning

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The face of England's King Richard III was revealed on Tuesday for the first time in 500 years following a reconstruction of his skeleton which was found buried underneath a car park. AFP photo 

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Michael Ibsen, a descendant of England's king Richard III, with a plastic model based on a CT scan the king's skull (AFP, Justin Tallis)


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Richard III's face revealed for first time in 500 years

By Alice Ritchie (AFP)

LONDON — The face of England's much-maligned king Richard III was revealed on Tuesday for the first time in 500 years following a reconstruction of his skeleton which was found buried underneath a car park.

The three-dimensional plastic model is based on a CT scan of the skull of the king, who was killed in battle in 1485 after just two years on the throne but lived on as one of history's worst villains in William Shakespeare's play “Richard III”.

Academics hope the discovery of his remains under a car park in the central English city of Leicester, complete with twisted spine and major wounds to his skull, will lead to a rehabilitation of his reputation.

And Richard III enthusiasts believe the image of his face, until now only depicted in paintings, will be key to rewriting his legend.

"It's an interesting face, younger and fuller than we have been used to seeing, less careworn, and with the hint of a smile," said Phil Stone, chairman of the Richard III Society.

Dr Jo Appleby, a lecturer in bioarchaeology at Leicester University, points to an image of the skull of Britain's King Richard III. AFP

The task of reconstructing the face – complete with shoulder-length black hair – was led by Caroline Wilkinson, professor of craniofacial identification at the University of Dundee in Scotland, and paid for by the Richard III Society.

Her team created a scientific reconstruction using a CT scan of the remains, without any reference to contemporary portraits of the king, and then "humanised" it by painting the face and adding features such as brows and eyelashes.

The skeleton was found during an archaeological dig at a municipal car park in Leicester last August.

A team at the University of Leicester announced on Monday that DNA tests, carbon dating and examination of bones had proved beyond reasonable doubt that it belonged to Richard, ending a 500-year-old mystery.

After his death at the Battle of Bosworth, near Leicester, Richard's body was buried by Franciscan friars, known as Greyfriars, in an unmarked grave. When their monastery was destroyed in the 1530s, all traces of him disappeared.

Richard's remains will now be re-interred at Leicester Cathedral in a ceremony next year that befits his royal status.

In "Richard III", Shakespeare described a villain who murdered his two young nephews to win the throne, whose hunchback and withered arm were a physical manifestation of his evil.

The skeleton confirms the king did have a twisted spine, but no withered arm.

Enthusiasts also say there is no evidence he killed the young boys, and hope the focus will now shift to the social reforms Richard introduced.

descendant – a relative of a person who lived in the past ทายาท, ผู้สืบสายเลือด
CT scan – a special x-ray test that produces detailed images of the body เอ็กซเรย์ด้วยระบบคอมพิวเตอร์
skull – the bones of the head  กระโหลกศีรษะ
reveal – to show something that was covered or hidden or not known เปิด, ทำให้ปรากฎ
malign – to say bad things about somebody/something publicly  ใส่ร้าย, พูดให้ร้าย, กล่าวหา
reconstruction – the process of building or creating something again that has been damaged or destroyed การประกอบใหม่, การสร้างใหม่
skeleton – the structure of bones that supports the body of a person or an animal โครงกระดูก
bury – to put something into the ground ฝัง
three-dimensional – not flat, but able to be measured in height, depth, and width  มี 3 มิติ (กว้าง สูง ลึก)
battle – a fight between two armies in a war การสู้รบ
on the throne – having the position of being the King or Queen
villain – a bad character in a play, film or story ตัวร้าย
academic – someone who teaches at a college, or who studies as part of their job นักวิชาการ
remains – the body of a person or animal that has died ซากศพ
twisted – bent into a shape that is not normal  บิดเบี้ยว ผิดรูปผิดร่าง
spine – the row of small bones that are connected together down the middle of the back  กระดูกสันหลัง
wound – an injury in which your skin or flesh is damaged บาดแผล
rehabilitation – the process of returning someone or something to a good or healthy condition, state or way of living การทำให้กลับสู่สภาพเดิม, การทำให้กลับมาดีเหมือนเดิม
reputation – the opinion people have about how good or bad someone or something is ชื่อเสียง
enthusiast – a person who is very interested in something and spends a lot of time doing it คนที่กระตือรือร้น
image – a photograph, painting, or other work of art that represents a person or thing รูปภาพ
depict – to represent or show something in a picture or story พรรณนา, บรรยายให้เห็นภาพ
key – the most important thing สิ่งที่สำคัญที่สุด
legend – an old story about famous people and events in the past, usually not completely true ตำนาน, นิทาน
careworn – looking tired, worried, and unhappy  ที่ดูเหนื่อยเพราะมีเรื่องกังวลมาก
hint – a small amount of something เล็กน้อย
archaeological – related to the study of the buildings, graves, tools and other objects which belonged to people who lived in the past, in order to learn about their culture and society (the subject is archaeology) เกี่ยวกับโบราณคดี
bioarchaeology – the scientific study human remains discovered at archaeological sites
task – something that you have to do หน้าที่; ภารกิจ
shoulder – one of the two parts of your body between your neck and the top of your arms ไหล่
craniofacial – relating to the bones of the skull and face ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับกระดูกของกะโหลกศีรษะและใบหน้า
identification – the process of finding out what or who someone is  การชี้ตัว การหาตัวผู้กระทำผิด
reference – the act of looking at something for information การอ้างอิง
contemporary – alive or existing at the same time as a particular event or person ร่วมสมัย
portrait – a painting, photograph, drawing, etc. of a person ภาพวาดหรือภาพถ่ายคน
humanise – to make something seem to be human; to make someone kinder and more able to understand other people ทำให้เป็นมนุษย์,ทำให้ใจอ่อน,มีเมตตากรุณา
brow – the line of hair above the eye คิ้ว
eyelashes – the short hairs which grow along the edges of the eye ขนตา
municipal – of a town, city or district with its own local government เทศบาล
carbon dating – a method of finding out the age of a very old object by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon it contains การคำนวณอายุของวัตถุเก่าแก่โดยดูจากปริมาณคาร์บอ
prove – to use facts, evidence, etc. to show that something is true พิสูจน์
beyond reasonable doubt – quite certain and satisfactory for making a decision ปราศจากข้อสงสัย, ไม่มีข้อกังขา  
mystery – not explained or known สิ่งที่ไม่สามารถอธิบายได้, ความแปลกประหลาด, ลึกลับ
friar – a member of one of several Roman Catholic religious communities of men who in the past travelled around teaching people about Christianity and lived by asking other people for food พระในคริสตศาสนานิกายโรมันคาทอลิก
unmarked – having no words or symbols on it to show what or where something is  ซึ่งไม่มีร่องรอย
grave – a place in the ground where a dead person is buried หลุมศพ, หลุมฝังศพ
monastery – a building or serious of buildings in which monks  live, worship and work together วัด, ที่อยู่อาศัยของพร
traces – very small amounts of a substance ร่องรอย
disappear – to no longer exist หายไป, สาบสูญ, สูญหาย
inter – to bury a dead person ฝังศพ
cathedral – a very large, usually stone, building for Christian worship  โบสถ์คริสต์
befit – to be suitable for someone or something เหมาะสม, สมควรเหมาะเจาะ
status – official or legal position สถานภาพ
murder – to commit the crime of killing someone deliberately ฆาตกรรม, สังหาร
nephew – a son of your brother or sister, or a son of your husband’s or wife’s brother or sister หลานชาย
hunchback – a large round part on the back that is caused by an unusual curve in the spine; a person with such a back หลังค่อม, คนหลังค่อม
withered –dying or dead from dryness เหี่ยวแห้ง
evidence – facts, signs or objects that make you believe that something is true หลักฐาน,ข้อแสดง
physical – existing in the real world, rather than in someone's imagination ,โดยพละของธรรมชาติ, แท้จริง
manifestation – evidence that something exists or is present การแสดงให้เห็นอย่างเด่นชัด, การปรากฏ, การแสดงอย่างเปิดเผย
evil – a force that causes bad things to happen; morally bad behaviour สิ่งที่ชั่วร้าย
focus – the thing or person that people are most interested in  จุดสนใจ, จุดสำคัญ, จุดหลัก
shift – to change เปลี่ยน
reform – a change that is intended to correct a situation that is wrong or unfair การแก้ไข การปฏิรูป

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