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City smog: Grey future

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Particles, carbon monoxide & ozone increasing in Bangkok, largely a result of traffic congestion. 

A tuk-tuk and a motorcycle manage the clogged Phahon Yothin Road under Saphan Khwai BTS station. The Bangkok Metropolitan Authority and the Pollution Control Department has reported that the Saphan Khwai intersection is one of the spots where the level of air pollution exceeds health standards. Other spots that have too many contaminants for our own good is Rama IX intersection, Si Phraya intersection, and Rama III Road.


Expect city smog to worsen, experts say


Apinya Wipatayotin

Bangkok's air quality is likely to worsen, air pollution experts say.

Supat Wangwongwatana, secretary of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia, said he was concerned about the increase in the amount of particles, carbon monoxide and ozone in Bangkok, largely a result of traffic congestion.

Mr Supat said the amounts of these air pollutants should not have increased over the past two years after the introduction of the more environmentally friendly Euro-IV petrol as the regular fuel in the capital.

"With Euro IV, we expected the air to be better and cleaner. But the result has been different to our expectations," he said.

He said air pollutant concentrations were still too high, and air quality problems persisted as there were so many cars on Bangkok's roads.

Mr Supat said many pollutants were generated by incomplete combustion in motor vehicles, which releases carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, pure carbon and other materials into the air.

He was speaking at a seminar on "Raising Awareness of Air Pollution" held by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment's Department of Pollution Control.

Mr Supat said several developed countries had established that air particles of particulate matter (PM) sized 2.5 and greater could pose health problems and were able to measure how much PM 2.5 was in the air.

However, Thailand could not measure PM 2.5, as its air monitoring devices could only detect PM 10 and greater, he said.

However, Mr Supat said there had been a reduction in acid rain in the capital, thanks to the introduction of Euro IV, which can more than halve sulphur emissions.

He said Euro IV can reduce sulphur from 10,000 parts per million (ppm) to 50 ppm.

Mr Supat said acid rain had also been detected in Nakhon Ratchasima province and the eastern region, which is a petrochemical industry base.

However, he said acid rain had not yet had any major effect on the environment.

Meanwhile, the Department of Pollution Control's director of air quality and noise management Jongjit Naranathmaeteekul said the levels of PM 10 particles above the safety standard had increased by 43% against last year in Saraburi, the upper North, Nakhon Ratchasima, Rayong and Bangkok.

The highest levels were found in Chiang Rai's Mae Sai district, with 479 microgrammes per cubic metre of PM 10, Ms Jongjit said.

The safety standard for particles is 120 microgrammes per cubic metre.

Nakhon Ratchasima deputy governor Ukrit Puengsopha yesterday led a team of officials to inspect the Lam Takong River near Wat Salaloi community in Muang district.

The team found the water in small canals linking to the river was polluted from the release of untreated household waste.

The canals were filled with household rubbish.

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acid: a chemical, usually a liquid, that contains hydrogen and has a pH of less than seven. Acids are usually sour and can often burn holes in or damage things they touch. - กรด, ของเหลวที่มีฤทธิ์เป็นกรด, ของเหลวที่มีสภาพเป็นกรด

acid rain: rain that has a high level of acid in it caused by air pollution that can damage the environment and other things such as buildings - ฝนกรด

air pollution: smog, dirty air that can be a health risk - มลพิษทางอากาศ, อากาศเสีย

awareness: knowing that something exists, or having knowledge or experience of a particular thing - การรับรู้, การทราบ, ความตระหนัก

base: a place from where an activity can be planned or controlled - ฐาน, ฐานที่มั่น

canal: a waterway, a long hole in the ground made to send water from one place to another - คลอง

capital: the most important town or city of a country, usually where the central government operates from - เมืองหลวง

clogged: blocked, so that nothing can get through - ตัน

combustion: the process of burning (take place inside the engine of a car which is called an "internal combustion engine" - การเผาไหม้

community: the people living in one particular area - ชุมชน

concentration: the amount of a substance in a liquid or in another substance - สารที่มีความเข้มข้น

concerned: worried about something   - มีความกังวล

congestion: a situation in which a place is crowded with people or vehicles - แน่นขนัดไปด้วยรถหรือคน

contaminant: a substance that makes something impure, dirty or unsafe - สิ่งปนเปื้อน

deposition: when more and more substance falls on a surface making layers - การทับถม

detect: to find or prove that something is present using scientific methods - พบ

emissions: gases going into the air - การปล่อยก๊าซเสียสู่ท้องฟ้า

environment: the place in which people or animals live including all the physical conditions that affect them - สภาพแวดล้อม, สิ่งแวดล้อม

establish: to determine; to discover something by examining evidence to or calculate something - กำหนด, ระบุ, แสดงผล

exceed: to be more than something; to go beyond a limit - เกินกว่าที่กำหนด

expectations: what is expected - ที่คาดไว้

expert: someone who has a particular skill or who knows a lot about a particular subject - ผู้เชี่ยวชาญ

fuel: any material that produces heat or power, usually when it is burnt - เชื้อเพลิง

generate: to produce - ผลิต, ก่อให้เกิด

household: a group of people, often a family, who live together - ครัวเรือน

incomplete: not having everything that it should have; not finished or complete - ซึ่งไม่สมบูรณ์

inspect: to look at something carefully - ตรวจสอบ, ตรวจสอบอย่างละเอียด

intersection: a place where roads, lines, etc., join or cross each other - สี่แยก

material: a substance that things can be made from - วัตถุ

matter: physical substance in the universe - สาร,วัตถุ

monitor: to regularly check something or watch someone in order to find out what is happening - ตรวจสอบ ตรวจตรา

monitoring: regularly checking something - การจับตาดู, การตรวจตรา, การเฝ้าระมัดระวัง

natural resources: things such as coal, trees, wildlife and oil that exist in nature and can be used by people - ทรัพยากรธรรมชาติ

network: a large system of connected parts, organisations, people, etc. - เครือข่าย

officials: people who have the power to make decisions or enforce the law - เจ้าหน้าที่ผู้มีอำนาจ

ozone: a kind of oxygen high up in the air of the earth's atmosphere - โอโซน, ออกซิเจนรูปหนึ่ง ในแต่ละโมเลกุลจะมี 3 อะตอม เป็นแก๊สไม่มีสี มีความว่องไวต่อการทำปฏิกิริยา จุดเดือด -112.4°C จุดหลอมเหลว - 249.7°C มีกลิ่นเฉพาะตัว ใช้เป็นตัวเติมออกซิเจนในปฏิกิริยาเคมี

particle: an extremely small piece or amount of something - อนุภาค  ส่วนที่เล็กที่สุด

particulate: in the form of particles, very small pieces of something - ที่แยกเป็นส่วนย่อยๆ

parts per million: a unit for measuring concentration of chemicals or substances (finding how much of some chemical or substance is present) - พีพีเอ็ม (ส่วนในล้านส่วน)

persist: to continue - ยืดเยื้อต่อไป

petrochemical: any chemical substance obtained from petroleum oil or natural gas - สารที่ได้จากน้ำมันปิโตรเคมี

pollutant: something that causes pollution - สารพิษ, ของเสีย, สิ่งที่ทำให้สกปรก

polluted: (of water, air, land) having dirty or harmful substances so that it is no longer pleasant or safe to use - ซึ่งเป็นมลพิษ

quality: the standard of something when it is compared to other things like it; how good or bad something is - คุณภาพ

reduction: the process or result of making something smaller or less in amount, size, importance etc - การลดลง

release: to let something move freely; to allow a substance to flow out from somewhere - ปล่อย

rubbish: waste material or things that are no longer wanted or needed - ขยะ

smog: clouds of dirty and smokey air - หมอกควัน, ควัน, ควันพิษ,

spot: the particular place where someone or something is - ที่, สถานที่

standard: a (high) level of quality - มาตรฐาน

traffic: the number of cars, trucks and other vehicles traveling along a road at one time - การจราจร

traffic congestion: roads that are very crowded with vehicles - รถติด

treat: to put a chemical on or in something to do something to it such as clean it, protect it or make it stronger - บำบัด such as treat waste บำบัดกากกัมมันตรังสี or treat medically treatment บำบัดโรค

untreated: not cleaned and has not had special substances added to protect it or make it safe to use - ดิบ, ยังไม่ได้เปลี่ยนรูปและลักษณะเดิม

vehicle: a machine that you travel in or on, especially one with an engine that travels on roads, e.g., a car, bus, van, truck, etc. - ยานพาหนะ

waste: the useless part that is thrown away after something is used - ที่ไม่มีประโยชน์, การสูญเสียไปโดยเปล่าประโยชน์, การหมดเปลือง

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