Oil slick: Bigger than it looks (Updated) | Bangkok Post: learning

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Oil slick: Bigger than it looks (Updated)

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Satellite shows big oil film of 15 sq kms moving towards coral reefs & coastal fish farms. 

One slick-fighting ship sails on an almost unbroken sea of black oil. The oil has already reached the mainland in Rayong province.

Update: A satellite photo taken at 6am on Thursday shows the surface area of the oil spill off the eastern province of Rayong has shrunk from 9 to 5 square kilometres.

The reduction in the size of the oil slick means that leaked oil will not reach Koh Kangkao, Koh Kham, and Koh Kuti islands but there does appear to be some oil along the coast near Ao Pe and Laem Ya cape

Oil in the water off the Ao Phrao tourist beach on Koh Samet has diluted, with almost 80% of the oil on the beach reportedly sponged out. [See photos with comparison below]


Oil spill bigger than it looks, expert warns


Post Reporters

Satellite photo showing larger oil slick moving towards coral reefs and coastal farms.

An expert yesterday warned of the possible health impacts of the PTT Global Chemical (PTTGC) oil spill on aquaculture and swimmers, as he said the slick is bigger than it looks.

Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (Gistda) director Anond Snidvongs said that aside from the thick black oil slick seen widely in media coverage, his agency has found from satellite photos that a less visible film of oil is covering a broader area of about 15 square kilometres near Koh Samet.

The film is travelling in a northeastward direction towards Koh Pla Teen, Koh Kudee and Koh Kham where there are important coral reefs, and it may affect sensitive marine life there. The film reached the estuary of the Klaeng canal on Sunday.

If it enters coastal farms, it can affect animals because the oil slick may contain hydrocarbons or heavy metals. Mr Anond warned against the use of the tainted seawater in coastal farms and swimming in the water.

Satellite photos show the oil spill drifting northeast, away from Koh Samet and towards the mainland.

The oily film can decay when exposed to bacteria and sunlight but it will then turn into non-degradable tar balls in the next few months.

Supeerapat Jongpanich, deputy governor of Rayong, said the oily film had reached the Rayong mainland.

Officials in Rayong are gathering the names of affected people and evidence to prepare for compensation demands.

Transport Minister Chadchat Sittipunt said he would convene a committee on oil-based water pollution tomorrow to revise response measures. The meeting will consider risk areas, oil slick removal equipment and private participation. It will also recruit more experts including those in the petroleum, insurance and energy sectors, he said.

Energy Minister Pongsak Raktapongpaisarn said PTTGC will pay compensation to businesses that have been damaged or affected. They would have to register with the Rayong Administration Office.

He said some regulations that hinder efficient tackling of petroleum-related accidents might be revamped.

Emergency response drills in the event of an oil leak are held every three years and this should increase to once a year. "We have to be more careful from now on to prevent another accident," Mr Pongsak said.

According to the Department of Mineral Fuels, as at the end of 2012, there have been  29 oil spills in the Gulf of Thailand with the total amount of 1,284 litres leaked into the sea.

Anon Siriseangtaksin, PTTGC chief executive, said restoration of the affected areas and payments for damage to affected parties will start once the clean-up is complete.

If the compensation is more than its insurance coverage of US$50 million, PTTGC will still honour the payment.

Regarding damage to the environment, Mr Anon said third parties are welcome to investigate any damage caused to the environment. These could include environmental experts from universities and the Petroleum Institute of Thailand.

Nattachat Charuchinda, chief operating officer of the downstream petroleum business at the parent firm PTT Plc, said an oil spill of 50,000 litres on the first day was curbed by booms while 35,000 litres of Slickgone, a dispersant that disperses oil slicks supplied by Dasic International Co, were used.


A comparison of satellite images shows how the concentration of the oil slick has decreased. (GISTDA images)

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agency: a government department that provides a particular service - หน่วยงานราชการ

appear: to be seen - ปรากฏ

aquaculture: the farming of animals and plants that live in the water such as shrimp, fish and shellfish in specially built ponds and enclosures, unlike fishing which catches fish living in their wild natural habitat (Source: Wikipedia) - เพาะเลี้ยงสัตว์น้ำ

aside: a remark that is not directly connected with the main subject that is being discussed -

bacteria: the simplest and smallest forms of life. Bacteria exist in large numbers in air, water and soil, and also in living and dead creatures and plants, and are often a cause of disease - แบ็กทีเรีย, เชื้อแบกทีเรีย

base: to use an idea, a fact, a situation, etc. as the point from which something can be developed - วางรากฐาน

biodegradable: some material that naturally decays and disappears from the environment quickly - ย่อยสลายได้ตามธรรมชาติ, ย่อยสลายในทางชีวภาพ

broad: wide - กว้างขวาง

cape: a small thin piece of land extending into the water from the land; headland, point - แหลม, ส่วนของผืนดินที่ยื่นเข้าไปในน้ำ

clean-up: a group project of cleaning something -

coastal: of an area of land beside the sea - แนวชายฝั่งทะเล

committee: a group of people who are chosen, usually by a larger group, to make decisions or to deal with a particular subject - คณะกรรมการ

compensation: money that someone receives because something bad has happened to them - การจ่ายเงินชดเชย

consider: to give careful thought to something before making a decision - พิจารณา

convene: to call a meeting - เรียกประชุม

coral reef: an area of coral, the top of which can sometimes be seen just above the sea - แนวปะการัง

coverage: protection that an insurance company or government provides by promising to pay you money if a particular event happens - ความคุ้มครอง

coverage: the reporting of news and sport in newspapers and on the radio and television - การรายงานข่าว

decay: when something becomes gradually damaged, worse or less - การเสื่อมลง

demand: to ask for something very firmly - เรียกร้อง, ต้องการ

diluted: when there is less of something (lower oncentration) after more water or another liquid is added, thinned - เจือจาง, มีตัวทำละลายมาก มีตัวถูกละลายน้อย

direction: the way something is moving or coming from - ทิศทาง

drift: to move slowly, often as a result of outside forces, with no control over direction - ล่องลอย,เลื่อนลอย

drill: an activity which practises a particular skill and often involves repeating the same thing several times - การฝึกหัด

efficient: effective and well organised (the opposite is inefficient) - มีประสิทธิภาพ

emergency: an unexpected situation involving danger in which immediate action is necessary - เหตุฉุกเฉิน

energy: the physical and mental effort that you use to do something - กำลัง, พละกำลัง

environment: the natural world including plants and animals, land, water, air, especially as it is affected by human activities - สิ่งแวดล้อม

equipment: the things that are needed for a particular purpose or activity - อุปกรณ์, เครื่องมือ

estuary: the wide part of a river at the place where it joins the sea - ปากแม่น้ำ

evidence: facts, signs or objects that make you believe that something is true - หลักฐาน,ข้อแสดง

expert: someone who has a particular skill or who knows a lot about a particular subject - ผู้เชี่ยวชาญ

exposed: openly affected by and not protected from - ได้รับ ในที่นี้หมายถึง สูดควันบุหรี่

film: a thin covering - เยื่อบาง, เยื่อบางๆ, เนื้อเยื่อบางๆ, เยื่อหุ้ม

fuel: any material that produces heat or power, usually when it is burnt - เชื้อเพลิง

gather: to bring things together that have been spread around - รวบรวม

heavy metal: a metal that has heavy density such as lead, gold or silver; can be poisonous if it contaminates the water or food supply - โลหะหนัก; เป็นคำที่ใช้เรียกกลุ่มโลหะที่มีความเป็นพิษ แบบสะสมและมีความหนาแน่น มากกว่า 4 เช่น ทองแดง นิเกิล สังกะสี โครเมียม แคดเมียม ปรอท ตะกั่ว อาร์เซนิก และเซเลเนียม ฯลฯ

hinder: to hamper; to stop someone or something from making progess or developing - ขัดขวาง

honour: to do what you promised to do - ทำตามสัญญา

hydrocarbon: chemicals that come from petroleum - สารไฮโดรคาร์บอน; ส่วนประกอบสำคัญของปิโตรเลียม, ส่วนประกอบสำคัญของปิโตรเลียมไม่ว่าจะเป็นก๊าซธรรมชาติหรือน้ำมันดิบ คือ คาร์บอน (C) และ ไฮโดรเจน (H) ในรูปของสารประกอบไฮโดรคาร์บอน (hydrocarbon) นอกจากนี้ก็มีสารอื่นๆที่เป็นส่วนประกอบของปิโตรเลียม เช่น กำมะถัน (S) ไนโตรเจน (N) และอื่นๆ

impact: an effect or influence - ผลกระทบ

in the event of: if this happens -

insurance: an arrangement in which you regularly pay an insurance company an amount of money so that they will give you money if something you own is damaged, lost, or stolen, or if you die or are ill or injured - การประกัน

investigate: to try to find out the facts about something in order to learn the truth about it - ตรวจสอบหาความจริง

leak: (of a liquid or gas) flowing out of a hole or crack - การรั่วไหล

mainland: a large mass of land that forms the main part of a country but does not include any islands belonging to the country - แผ่นดินใหญ่

marine: relating to the sea and creatures that live in it - เกี่ยวกับทะเล

measure: an action taken to solve a particular problem - มาตรการ

media: newspapers, television, radio, etc. - สื่อ

mineral: a valuable or useful chemical substance which is formed naturally in the ground - แร่

oil slick: large amounts of oil floating on the water, what happens after an oil spill, one form of man-made disaster - คราบน้ำมันที่ลอยบนผิวน้ำ

oil spill: "the release of a oil ( or any liquid petroleum hydrocarbon) into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Spilt oil penetrates into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing its insulating ability, and making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Cleanup and recovery from an oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water (affecting evaporation and biodegradation), and the types of shorelines and beaches involved. Spills may take weeks, months or even years to clean up" (Source: Wikipedia) - น้ำมันรั่ว

participation: to take part in or become involved in an activity - การมีส่วน

party: one of the people or groups of people involved in a situation, an official argument or arrangement - คู่กรณี

petroleum: oil coming from the ground - น้ำมันปิโตรเลียม, น้ำมันดิบ, น้ำมันจากดิน

pollution: contaminated, when something has been made dirty, poisonous, unpleasant to see or smell and possibly dangerous to health - การทำให้เป็นมลพิษ, การทำให้สกปรก, ภาวะมลพิษ, สภาวะมลพิษ, มลภาวะเป็นพิษ, สภาพเป็นพิษ, ความสกปรก

prepare: put in order, get ready - เตรียม, เตรียมตัว, เตรียมพร้อม, จัดเตรียม, ตระเตรียม

private: involving groups, businesses or industries that are not owned or controlled by the government - เอกชน

recruit: to get someone to work in a company or join an organisation - จ้างงาน

reduction: the process or result of making something smaller or less in amount, size, importance etc - การลดลง

register: an official list of names of people who are allowed to do something, e.g., vote, study, stay in a hotel etc - ทะเบียน

regulation: an official rule that controls the way that things are done - กฎระเบียบ

removal: taking something away - การเอาออกจาก

response: a reaction to something that has happened or been said - การตอบสนอง

restoration: the work of repairing and cleaning something, etc. so that its condition is as good as it originally was - การซ่อมแซม,การการบูรณะ, การกลับสู่สภาพปกติ

revamp: to make a major change or revision to something - ปรับปรุงใหม่

revise: to change, improve, or make additions to something - แก้ไข

risk: the possibility that something dangerous or unpleasant might happen - ความเสี่ยง

satellite: an electronic device that is sent into space and moves around the earth or another planet. It is used for communicating by radio, television, etc. and for providing information - ดาวเทียม

sector: a part of a country’s economic or business activity - ภาค (เศรษฐกิจ)

sensitive: easily influenced, changed or damaged, especially by a physical activity or effect - รับอิทธิ-พลภายนอกได้ง่าย

shrink (past form: shrunk): to become smaller, or to make something smaller - หดตัว, เล็กลง

sponge: a natural or artificial material full of small holes that is used for taking in liquid and cleaning things - ฟองน้ำ

sponge out: use a sponge to remove something -

surface: the outside or top layer of something - ผิวหน้า, ผิวภายนอก, ด้านนอก

surface area: the total area measurement of a surface, a measure of how big and wide it is - พื้นที่ผิว

tackling: making an organised and determined attempt to deal with a problem - การรับมือ แก้ไข จัดการกับปัญหา

tainted: spoiled by an unpleasant quality or feature - มัวหมอง มีมลทิน แปดเปื้อน

tar: asphalt, the dark sticky material used to cover roads that comes from oil - น้ำมันดิน, วัตถุเหลวที่ได้จากน้ำมันดิน, น้ำมันราดยางถนน

unbroken: without any breaks, continuous, uninterrupted - ไม่ขาดตอน, ต่อเนื่อง, ไม่ถูกรบกวน

visible: able to be seen - ที่มองเห็นได้

warn: to make someone aware of a possible problem or danger - เตือน

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