The more young adults use Facebook, the more their life satisfaction declines, research shows.
Facebook users 'less happy': study finds
People who use Facebook may feel more connected, but less happy. A study of young adults has concluded that the more people used Facebook, the worse they subsequently felt.
A study of young adults has concluded that the more people used Facebook, the worse they subsequently felt.
"On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection," said University of Michigan social psychologist Ethan Kross, lead author of the study.
"But rather than enhance well-being, we found that Facebook use predicts the opposite result - it undermines [well-being]."
The researchers recruited 82 young adults who had smartphones and Facebook accounts and assessed their subjective well-being by texting them at random times five times a day for two weeks.
The researchers said the study, published in the scientific journal PLOS, was believed to be the first measuring Facebook's impact on happiness and life satisfaction.
"This is a result of critical importance because it goes to the very heart of the influence that social networks may have on people's lives," said University of Michigan cognitive neuroscientist John Jonides, another author of the paper.
The researchers monitored the study group by asking them how they felt, whether they were worried or lonely, how much they used Facebook and how much they interacted "directly" with people.
"The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them," the researchers wrote. "The more they used Facebook over two weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time."
In contrast, personal interactions led people to feel better over time, they noted.
The scientists also found no evidence that Facebook use was merely a symptom of feeling low. People were not more likely to use Facebook when they felt bad, although they did use the social network more frequently when they were lonely.
"It was not the case that Facebook use served as a proxy for feeling bad or lonely," Kross said.
Yet the researchers stopped short of claiming the same effect for all Facebook users or other social networks.
"We concentrated on young adults in this study because they represent a core Facebook user demographic," the study said.
"However, examining whether these findings generalize to additional age groups is important. Future research should also examine whether these findings generalize to other online social networks."
The study comes a week after British researchers published a report concluding that frequent photo posting on Facebook can damage real-life relationships.
The discussion paper led by David Houghton of the University of Birmingham said Facebook photo postings, especially of oneself, are not always welcomed by less intimate friends.
"People, other than very close friends and relatives, don't seem to relate well to those who constantly share photos of themselves," Houghton said.
The researchers pointed out that while Facebook creates a homogenous group of "friends," most users have different types of relationships with those viewing their postings.
"It's worth remembering that the information we post to our 'friends' on Facebook actually gets viewed by lots of different categories of people: partners; friends; family; colleagues and acquaintances; and each group seems to take a different view of the information shared," the researcher said.
Learn from listening
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assess: to carefully consider a situation, person, or problem in order to make a judgment - ประเมิณ, ประเมิณสถานการณ์
at random: without a particular method, pattern, or purpose - มั่ว ลวกๆ, มักง่าย,
author: a person who writes a book or article - ผู้เขียน, นักเขียน
claim: saying that something is true although it has not been proved and other people may not believe it - ข้ออ้าง ข้อกล่าวหา
close: knowing a person very well, working or living with the person, being involved with, familiar with - ที่มีความใกล้ชิดกัน, อยู่ชิดหรือใกล้กัน
concentrate: to give most of your attention to one aim or activity - เพ่งความสนใจไปยัง มุ่งไปที่
conclude: to decide that something is true after looking at all the evidence you have - สรุป
conclude: to decide that something is true after looking at all the facts you have - ตัดสินใจ, สรุป
connected: linked - เชื่อมต่อ เชื่อมโยง
constantly: continuously; all the time - อย่างต่อเนื่อง
core: the most important or most basic part of something - ที่สำคัญที่สุด
critical: extremely important because a future situation will be affected by it - สำคัญยิ่ง
demographics: data relating to the population and different groups within it - สถิติประชากร
discussion: conversation; talk - การสนทนา, การอภิปราย
enhance: to improve the quality, amount or strength of something - ปรับปรุง, ทำให้ดีขึ้น
evidence: facts, signs or objects that make you believe that something is true - หลักฐาน,ข้อแสดง
examine: to look at somebody/something closely, to see if there is anything wrong or to find the cause of a problem - ตรวจ
finding: results, what people "find" or discover by doing some research or activity - ผลของการสืบค้น, ผลของการค้นหา
frequent: happening often - เกิดขึ้นบ่อย
frequently: happening often - บ่อยๆ
fulfill: to achieve something that you wanted to do, or to get something that you hoped for - สำเร็จ
generalize: to make a generalization or rule for all cases by looking at only a few cases (induction) - กล่าวสรุป, กล่าวทั่วๆ ไป
heart: centre (of an activity) - ศูนย์กลาง
homogeneous: containing things or parts that are the same, similar, uniform - ซึ่งมีคุณสมบัติเหมือนกัน, ซึ่งมีลักษณะเหมือนกัน
impact: an effect or influence - ผลกระทบ
in contrast with: different from - ตรงข้ามกับ
influence: the power to have an effect on people or things - อิทธิพล
interact: communicate with or react to - มีปฏิกิริยากับ
interaction: communicating with somebody, especially while you work, play or spend time with them - การสื่อสารระหว่างกัน, การมีปฏิสัมพันธ์
invaluable: extremely useful or valuable - ซึ่งประมาณค่ามิได้, ซึ่งหาค่ามิได้
journal: a newspaper or magazine that deals with a particular subject or profession - นิตยสาร, วารสาร
lonely: unhappy because you have no friends or people to talk to - เหงา, หงอยเหงา
monitor: to regularly check something or watch someone in order to find out what is happening - ตรวจสอบ ตรวจตรา
note: to notice or pay careful attention to something - สังเกต
on the surface: the way something seems to be without considering it carefully -
opposite: a person or thing that is as different as possible from somebody/something else - ตรงกันข้าม
personal: your own; not belonging to or connected with anyone else - เป็นส่วนตัว
point out: to mention something in order to give somebody information about it or make them notice it - ชี้ให้เห็น, บ่งชี, ชี้, ระบุ
predict: to say that an event or action will happen in the future, especially as a result of knowledge or experience - คาดการณ์ว่า พยากรณ์จากสถิติว่า
proxy: a person or company who acts for another person or company - ตัวแทน
psychologist: someone who studies how people’s minds work and how this affects their behavior - นักจิตวิทยา
publish: to produce a book, magazine, CD-ROM, etc. and sell it to the public - จัดพิมพ์
random: happening, done or chosen by chance rather than according to a plan - ซึ่งไม่มีแบบแผน
real-life: things that "really" happen in people's everyday life - ซึ่งเกิดขึ้นในชีวิตจริง
recruit: a person who has been persuaded to join a group - สมาชิกใหม่
recruit: to persuade someone to join in something - จัดหาคนใหม่
relate to: to be connected with something/somebody; to refer to something/somebody - เชื่อมโยงกับ
relationship: a sexual or romantic connection between two people - ความสัมพันธ์
relative: a member of your family - ญาติพี่น้อง
report: to tell someone officially that something exists or happened - รายงาน
represent: to be an example or expression of something - แสดงให้เห็น, เป็นเครื่องหมายของ
research: a careful study of a subject, especially in order to discover new facts or information about it - การวิจัย
researcher: a person who carriers out a careful study of a subject, especially in order to discover new facts or information about it - นักวิจัย
resources: things that you need to achieve something - ทรัพยากรที่มีอยู่
results: what you get in the end when activity is completed (test results, research results, etc) - ผล
satisfaction: a feeling that you are pleased and satisfied - ความพอใจ
share: to have or use something at the same time as someone else - ใช้ร่วมกัน
social: related to society, to people and the way they are connected to each other and interact with each other - เกี่ยวกับสังคม
social network: websites or other services on the internet for communication with people who share your interests - เครือข่ายสังคม
study: A setting of the mind or thoughts upon a subject; hence, application of mind to books, arts, or science, or to any subject, for the purpose of acquiring knowledge. - งานวิจัย
subsequently: happening or coming after something else - ซึ่งตามมา
symptom: a sign that someone has an illness - อาการ
undermine: to make someone become gradually less effective, confident, or successful - บ่อนทำลาย
well-being: the satisfactory state that someone or something should be in, that involves such things as being happy, healthy, and safe, and having enough money - ภาวะที่ปราศจากโรคภัยไข้เจ็บ
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