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Smoking, junk food, unsafe sex rising

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Drug & alcohol abuse, unhealthy eating & unsafe sex spreading, leading to shorter lives & endangering families (download free report). 

Smoking, junk food, unsafe sex are on the rise worldwide, according to a World Bank report. (File Photo)

The World Bank report discussed in the article is available for free here: Risking your Health: Causes, Consequences and Interventions to Prevent Risky Behaviors [pdf here], 


Smoking, junk food, unsafe sex rising


dpa News agency

Behaviours that increase individual health risks are on the increase around the world and pose issues for public health, especially in developing countries, a World Bank report warns.

The Washington-based development agency, which provides financial assistance, loans and expertise to developing and emerging economies, says abuse of drugs and alcohol, unhealthy eating and unsafe sex are spreading.

Even smoking rates, which have declined sharply in the United States and other developed countries in recent decades, are on the rise in many poor countries.

"Risky behaviours not only endanger an individual' s health and reduce life expectancy, they often impose consequences on others," says senior economist Damien de Walque of the World Bank research department and principal editor of the report.

"The health consequences and monetary costs of risky behaviours to individuals, their families, and society as a whole are staggering and justify public interventions."

The report, Risking your Health: Causes, Consequences and Interventions to Prevent Risky Behaviors [free report pdf here], finds that legislation and taxation can be effective at reducing or preventing unhealthy individual choices such as alcohol and tobacco use.

Public education campaigns to change behaviour - through sex education in schools, or food labelling laws, for example - tend to be less effective, especially by themselves, the World Bank said.

"Reversing the tide of these pernicious behaviours by promoting societal conditions for better health choices will pay dividends for families and countries across the globe, ultimately helping us end extreme poverty and promote inclusive and healthy growth," said Tim Evans, World Bank director of health, nutrition and population.

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abuse: the use of something in a bad, dishonest, or harmful way - การใช้ในทางที่ผิด

alcohol: drinks such as whiskey, beer, wine, etc that make people feel good and become drunk - เหล้า, สุรา

based: where the main work of an organisation, business, etc. is done or controlled - ซึ่งเป็นศูนย์กลาง

behaviour: the way that someone acts or behaves - พฤติกรรม, การกระทำตัว

campaign: a planned group of especially political, business or military activities which are intended to achieve a particular aim - การรณรงค์

condition: the physical state of a person or animal, especially how healthy they are - อาการ, สุขภาพ

consequences: results of effects of something - ผลที่ตามมา

decades: periods of ten years - เป็นสิบๆปี

developed country: a rich industrialized country - ประเทศพัฒนา

developing country: a country that is still growing and industrializing and is not yet a rich country - ประเทศกำลังพัฒนา

dividends: benefits; good results - ได้เปรียบ

drug abuse: using drugs in a bad way; not to cure the disease the drugs were made to cure - การใช้ยาในทางที่ผิด

economic development: the process of a country industrializing over time and becoming richer - การพัฒนาเศรษฐกิจ

economist: a person who studies or writes about economics - นักเศรษฐศาสตร์

editor: a person who is in charge of a newspaper, magazine, book production operation, etc, or part of one, and who decides what should be included - บรรณาธิการ

effective: producing the result that was intended - ได้ผลดี

endanger: to put in danger - ทำให้ตกอยู่ในอันตราย

especially: more with one person, thing, etc. than with others, or more in particular circumstances than in others - โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่ง

expertise: a high level of knowledge or skill - ทักษะความรู้, ความคิดเห็นของผู้เชี่ยวชาญ

extreme: very great in degree - ที่สุด

financial assistance: help with money - ความช่วยเหลือทางการเงิน

impose: to introduce something and force people to accept it - กำหนด,บังคับใช้

inclusiveness: trying to include many different types of people and treat them all fairly and equally - ความครอบคลุม

individual: a person considered separately rather than as part of a group - บุคคล

intervention: becoming involved in a situation in order to try to stop or change it - การแทรกแซง

issue: a problem that needs to be considered - ประเด็น

justify: to show that there is good reason for something - แสดงเหตุผลที่ดีพอ

label: a piece of paper, etc. that is attached to something and that gives information about it - ฉลาก, แถบ

legislation: a law or set of laws suggested by a government and made official by a parliament - กฎหมาย, การออกกฎหมาย

life expectancy: the number of years that a person is likely to live; the length of time that something is likely to exist or continue for - การคาดหมายคงชีพ

loan: an amount of money that a person, business, or country borrows, especially from a bank - เงินกู้

nutrition: food considered as something that keeps you healthy - โภชนาการ

pernicious: very dangerous or harmful - เป็นภัย เป็นอันตราย

population: a particular group of people or animals living in a particular area - กลุ่มที่อาศัยอยู่ในที่เดียวกัน

pose: cause something, especially a problem or difficulty - เป็นเหตุให้

poverty: the condition of being extremely poor - ความจน

prevent: to stop somebody from doing something; to stop something from happening - ขัดขวาง, กัน, กีดขวาง

principal: main or most important - หัวหน้า, สำคัญที่สุด

promote: to encourage or support something - สนับสนุน

provide: to give someone/ something that they want or need - จัดหาให้, จัดเตรียมไว้ให้

public: provided, especially by the government, for the use of people in general - ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับส่วนรวม, ที่เป็นของสาธารณะ

public health: the health of all the people in a country, city or community and their health issues; also the name of a government department - การสาธารณสุข

rate: to make a measurement/estimate of how good, popular, appropriate, etc. someone or something is - ประเมิน

recent: happening or starting a short time ago - เร็วๆ นี้

research: a careful study of a subject, especially in order to discover new facts or information about it - การวิจัย

risk: the possibility that something dangerous or unpleasant might happen - ความเสี่ยง

risky :  involving the possibility of danger, harm or failure - เสี่ยง, เสี่ยงอันตราย

senior: with a high rank or position - อาวุโส

sharply: quickly and by a large amount - สูงขึ้นอย่างรวดเร็ว

society: a group of people who join together for a particular purpose - สมาคม

spread: to (cause to) cover, reach or have an effect on a wider or increasing area or number of people - แพร่กระจาย, แพร่กระจายไปทั่ว

staggered: very surprised and shocked at something you are told or at something that happens - ผวา, ตกใจ

staggering: extremely surprising -

tend: to be likely to behave in a particular way or have a particular characteristic - มักจะ

tobacco: - ยาสูบ, a substance that people smoke in cigarettes, pipes etc

ultimately: finally, after a series of things have happened - ท้ายที่สุด, ตอนสุดท้าย, ในที่สุด

unsafe sex: sex without condom with someone you do not know well - เพศไม่ปลอดภัย

whole: all of something - ทั้งหมด

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