Nelson Mandela dies aged 95 | Bangkok Post: learning

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Nelson Mandela dies aged 95

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Nelson Mandela died at his home of complications from a lung infection. Within minutes news agencies around the world were running tributes to the great man. We'll read one of them. 

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Nelson Mandela: 1918 - 2013

Within minutes of the announcement of Nelson Mandela's death, news agencies were running long stories on his life. This, of course, is because obituaries of famous people are often written well in advance of their deaths. Here is an excerpt from the AFP news agency' s Mandela obituary published this morning.

Nelson Mandela dies aged 95

Johannesburg (AFP) – Nelson Mandela, the revered icon of the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa and one of the towering political figures of the 20th century, has died aged 95.

Mandela, who was elected South Africa's first black president after spending nearly three decades in prison, had been receiving treatment for a lung infection at his Johannesburg home since September, after three months in hospital in a critical state.

His condition deteriorated and he died following complications from the lung infection, with his family by his side.

Mandela, once a boxer, had a long history of lung problems after contracting tuberculosis while in jail on Robben Island.

A picture taken on February 11, 1990 shows Nelson Mandela (C) and his wife Winnie raising their fists and saluting cheering crowds upon Mandela's release from the Victor Verster prison near Paarl. The anti-apartheid icon spent 27 years in jail before his release. AFP PHOTO FILES / ALEXANDER JOE

The news was announced by a clearly emotional South African president Jacob Zuma live on television, who said Mandela had "departed" and was at peace.

"Our nation has lost its greatest son," said Zuma.

A file photo taken on July 24, 2007 shows former South African President Nelson Mandela joking with youngsters as they celebrate his 89th birthday at the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund in Johannesburg. AFP PHOTO / ALEXANDER JOE

"What made Nelson Mandela great is precisely what made him human," he said.

A file photo taken in 1961 shows South African anti-apartheid leader and African National Congress (ANC) member Nelson Mandela. AFP PHOTO

His extraordinary life story, quirky sense of humour and lack of bitterness towards his former oppressors ensured global appeal for the charismatic leader.

Once considered a terrorist by the United States and Britain for his support of violence against the apartheid regime, at the time of his death he was an almost unimpeachable moral icon.

The Nobel Peace Prize winner spent 27 years behind bars before being freed in 1990 to lead the African National Congress (ANC) in negotiations with the white minority rulers which culminated in the first multi-racial elections in 1994.

A victorious Mandela served a single term as president before taking up a new role as a roving elder statesman and leading AIDS campaigner before finally retiring from public life in 2004.

"When he emerged from prison people discovered that he was all the things they had hoped for and more," fellow Nobel Peace laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu once said.

"He is by far the most admired and revered statesperson in the world and one of the greatest human beings to walk this earth."

He was a global cause celebre during the long apartheid years, and popular pressure led world leaders to tighten sanctions imposed on South Africa's racist white minority regime.

In 1988 at a concert in Wembley stadium in London, tens of thousands sang "Free Nelson Mandela" as millions more watched on their television sets across the world.

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Vocabulary:

admire: to respect somebody for what they are or for what they have done - ชมเชย,ยกย่องสรรเสริญ

apartheid: the political system that existed in the past in South Africa in which only white people had political rights and power - นโยบายการแบ่งแยกสีผิว (ในแอฟริกาใต้)

appeal: a quality that causes someone to like or want something - ความดึงดูดใจ, ความน่าสนใจ, ความเย้ายวน

archbishop: a bishop of the highest rank, responsible for all the churches in a large area - หัวหน้าของบิชอพ

behind bars: in prison - การจำคุก

bitterness: feeling angry or upset because of a bad experience, especially when you think that you have been treated unfairly - ความเคียดแค้น, ความโกรธแค้น

campaigner: a person who takes part in organized activities which are intended to change something in society - ผู้ต่อสู้,ผู้รณรงค์,ผู้โฆษณาเผยแพร่

cause celebre: an issue that attracts a lot of attention and is supported by a lot of people - คดีที่มีชื่อเสียง

century: a period of one hundred years - ศตวรรษ

charismatic: (of a person) having a strong personal quality that makes other people like them and become attracted to them - ผู้มีอำนาจ ผู้ที่ได้รับการเคารพยกย่อง

complications: additional medical problems which make it more difficult to treat an existing illness - อาการแทรกซ้อน

condition: the physical state of a person or animal, especially how healthy they are - อาการ, สุขภาพ

contract a disease: to become sick with a disease -

critical: very seriously ill or injured and might die - อย่างรุนแรง  อย่างวิกฤต

culminate: to end with, after developing for some time - สิ้นสุด, ถึงขั้นสุดท้าย

decade: a period of ten years - ทศวรรษ, ระยะเวลา 10 ปี

depart: to leave - ออกจาก

deteriorated: became worse - ทรุดโทรม, เสื่อมโทรม, เลวลง, ชำรุด

elder: an old person - ผู้สูงวัย, ผู้อาวุโส, ผู้อายุมาก

emerge: to come out of - ออกจาก

emotional: related to strong feeling such as anger or love, or strong feelings in general - มีอารมณ์

ensure: to make certain that something happens or is done - ให้การยืนยัน, รับรอง, ให้ความมั่นใจ

excerpt: a part of a longer story, speech, song, text, etc. - บทคัดย่อ

extraordinary: very unusual and surprising - เกินธรรมดา, ผิดธรรมดา

fellow: used for talking about people who are similar to you or are in the same situation - ซึ่งอยู่ในสภาพเดียวกัน

figure: someone who is important in some way - บุคคลสำคัญ

fist: your hand when your fingers are closed tightly - กำปั้น, หมัด

fund: money provided for something - เงินทุน กองทุน

global: throughout the world - ทั่วโลก

icon: someone who is very famous and who people think represents a particular idea - ดาราหรือบุคคลผู้มีชื่อเสียงที่เป็นตัวแทนของสิ่งใดสิ่งหนึ่ง

impose: to force someone to accept something - กำหนด,บังคับ

in advance: before the time that is expected; before something happens - ล่วงหน้า

infection: a disease or medical condition that is caused by a bacteria or by a virus or a parasite - การติดเชื้อ

jail: a prison - เรือนจำ, ห้องขัง, คุก

lack of: when there is not enough of something - ขาด

laureate: someone who has won a prize for their achievements, especially a nobel prize - ผู้ได้รับเกียรติยศ,ผู้ได้รับรางวัลเป็นเกียรติยศ

lung: one of the two organs in your chest that fill with air when you breathe - ปอด

minority: involving less than half of a group - เสียงส่วนน้อย

moral: relating to right and wrong and the way that people should behave - ทางศีลธรรม, เกี่ยวกับความรู้สึกผิดชอบชั่วดี

multi-racial (multiracial): including or involving several different races of people - ซึ่งมีหลายเชื้อชาติ

negotiations: formal discussion in which people or groups try to reach an agreement - การเจรจาต่อรอง

news agency: an organisation that collects news and supplies it to newspapers and television and radio companies - สำนักข่าว, องค์กรรวบรวมข่าวให้สื่อมวลชน

obituary: an article about somebody's life and achievements, that is printed in a newspaper soon after they have died - ข่าวมรณะกรรม

oppressor: a person or group of people that treats somebody in a cruel and unfair way, especially by not giving them the same rights, etc. as other people - ผู้กดขี่

precisely: exactly - อย่างเที่ยงตรง,อย่างถูกต้อง,อย่างแม่นยำ,อย่างแน่นอน,อย่างละเอียด

pressure: trying to make someone do something by forcing, threatening, or persuading them in a determined way - ความกดดัน, แรงกระตุ้น, การบีบบังคับ

publish: to make something available to the public through books, magazines, the Internet, etc. - เผยแพร่, จัดพิมพ์

quirky: a little strange, especially and aspect of someone's personality or behaviour - ซึ่งแปลกๆ

racist: involving the belief that some races of people are better than others; involving the unfair treatment of people who belong to a different race - เกี่ยวข้องกับการเหยียดผิว, เกี่ยวข้องกับการแบ่งแยกชนชั้น

regime: a government that controls a country, especially in a strict or unfair way - รัฐบาลที่ขึ้นมาปกครองโดยการยึดอำนาจ

release: allowing someone to go free - การปล่อยตัว

retire: to stop working because you have reached the age where you are officially too old to work - เกษียณอายุ

revered: highly respected and admired - ซึ่งแสดงความเคารพนับถือ

role: the purpose or influence of someone or something in a particular situation; function or job - บทบาท

roving: travelling from one place to another and not staying anywhere permanently - ท่องเที่ยว,ร่อนเร่,พเนจร,ไม่อยู่กับที่

salute: a formal signal make to show respect to someone, such as the firing of guns in a ceremony - ยิงสลุต

sanction: an official order, such as the stopping of trade or business dealings, which is taken against a country, group or person in order to make it obey international law - การคว่ำบาตร

sense of humour: the ability to know when something is funny, and to laugh at funny situations - อารมณ์ขัน

state: condition - สภาพ

statesman: an experienced political leader that many people respect - รัฐบุรุษ

statesperson: a wise, experienced and respected political leader - รัฐบุรุษ

struggle: a very difficult task that you can do only by making a great effort - ความพยายาม

term: a period of time a politician, government or other official holds their job - ช่วงเวลาการดำรงตำแหน่งหรืออำนาจ

terrorist: someone who uses violence and fear in order to achieve something - ผู้ก่อการร้าย โจรผู้ร้าย

towering: of extremely high quality; having great achievements - ที่สำคัญที่สุด, สูงลิ่ว

treatment: the process of providing medical care - การรักษา

tuberculosis: a serious disease which is infectious and can attack many parts of a person's body, especially their lungs - วัณโรค

unimpeachable: that you cannot doubt or question or find fault with - v

victorious: having won a victory in a war, match, game, etc. - ซึ่งมีชัยชนะ

violence: physical force with the deliberate intention of causing damage to property or injury or death to people - ความรุนแรง, การใช้กำลังทำลาย

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