Continuing coverage of the the PDRC's "all-out final battle". The Senate is struggling to help find a solution to the political crisis, with one protest group demanding it appoint a new PM and another insisting that it doesn't.
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Day 6: Our Wednesday coverage
We start again with excerpts from today's main Bangkok Post story.
Note: Audio follows full text which began Friday.
People’s Democratic Reform Committee secretary-general Suthep Thaugsuban, along with other PDRC co-leaders, reads a statement at Government House Tuesday calling on the Senate to step up efforts to install an interim prime minister. THITI WANNAMONTHA
Rivals raise pressure on Senate
Surachai urged to get in touch with Thaksin
Aekarach Sattaburuth & Patsara Jikkham
The Senate is struggling to come up with ways to end the political crisis as both the anti-government movement and the red shirts pile pressure on the Upper House to back their causes.
The Senate held an informal session for a second day Tuesday to discuss possible solutions to the crisis.
During the session, appointed Senator Wanchai Sornsiri suggested that acting Senate Speaker Surachai Liangboonlertchai meet for talks with privy councillors, who are respected throughout the country as senior figures.
Sen Wanchai said Sen Surachai should make contact with ousted premier Thaksin Shinawatra to discuss the country's problems.
Thaksin is at the centre of the political conflict and whether or not the political problems end depends solely on him, Sen Wanchai said.
Senator Trungchai Buranasomphop said the country is in urgent need of a new government, adding that an interim prime minister must be installed under Section 7 of the charter.
Sen Surachai said he had instructed the Senate secretariat to invite stakeholders in the political crisis to offer their views in parliament Tuesday.
Acting caretaker Prime Minister Niwatthamrong Bunsongphaisarn and Democrat Party leader Abhisit Vejjajiva were invited to speak at the Senate session Tuesday, Sen Surachai said.
Acting Senate Speaker Surachai Liangboonlertchai listens as Democrat leader Abhisit Vejjajiva tells about 60 senators attending an informal session how he thinks the political crisis can be resolved. Acting caretaker Prime Minister Niwatthamrong Bunsongphaisarn did not attend. CHANAT KATANYU
Mr Abhisit agreed to come, but Mr Niwatthamrong was not available.
Mr Niwatthamrong said he could not participate in the Senate session because he was tied up with religious ceremonies during Visakha Bucha Day.
He also said he doubted the legality of what the Senate was trying to do.
At the Senate session Tuesday Mr Abhisit suggested that a referendum be held for the public to make decisions on key issues such as how to establish a reform council free of politicians, how to proceed with reforms, and how to ensure an elected government implements the reforms proposed by the reform council.
The Senate had also invited the United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD) to speak in parliament, Sen Surachai added. However, UDD secretary-general Nattawut Saikuar said the group had rejected the invitation.
The UDD declined to attend the meeting as it is opposed to the acting Senate speaker nominating an interim prime minister, Mr Nattawut said.
The red-shirts massed at Utthayan Road in Nakhon Pathom province have vowed to resist any attempt to install an interim prime minister. PATTANAPONG HIRUNARD
UDD chairman Jatuporn Prompan accused Sen Surachai and Mr Suthep of having joined forces to push for an interim premier.
Mr Jatuporn warned that if the Senate nominates an interim prime minister, the UDD will escalate its rallies to oppose it.
Also on Wednesday, PDRC leader Suthep Thaugsuban read a statement calling on the Senate to step up efforts to install an interim prime minister.
He said the country currently lacks a functioning government while the caretaker government is not in full command of national administration.
The caretaker government has failed to implement measures to solve economic problems, which adds to the woes of people affected by the rising cost of living.
PDRC co-leader Thaworn Senneam said the anti-government group is prepared to take "decisive action" if the Senate cannot convince political stakeholders, independent organisations and the private sector to engage in talks to bring an end to the political turmoil as well as initiate a process to install an interim prime minister within seven days.
Day 5: Our Tuesday coverage
An aerial view of the PDRC' s new consolidated rally site outside the United Nations building, not far from Government House. PATTARAPONG CHATPATTARASILL
Here are excerpts from today's main front page story in the Bangkok Post.
Suthep, PDRC burst into parliament
Closed-door meet with Surachai stirs red ire
People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) leader Suthep Thaugsuban and other leaders sit outside parliament awaiting for permission to enter. They received it. PATTARACHAI PREECHAPANICH
The acting Senate speaker's permission for People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) leader Suthep Thaugsuban to enter parliament premises and hold a closed-door discussion with him has sparked outrage from the red shirts and pro-government elements.
The Senate was holding an informal Monday session to discuss the political impasse.
As the session was in progress, Mr Suthep led demonstrators to parliament and conveyed a note to deputy Senate speaker and acting Senate Speaker Surachai Liangboonlertchai, who was chairing the meeting, to ask Sen Surachai to allow him to speak.
The anti-government Group of 40 senators voiced support for Mr Suthep to speak at the session, but other senators disagreed.
However, Sen Surachai, who chaired the session, allowed Mr Suthep to enter the parliament premises.
Sen Surachai agreed to meet for talks with Mr Suthep and other PDRC co-leaders in a reception room behind closed doors.
Once inside, they also received a gracious welcome from acting Senate Speaker Surachai Liangboonlertchai PATTARACHAI PREECHAPANICH
United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD) chairman Jatuporn Prompan lambasted Sen Surachai for meeting for talks with Mr Suthep on parliament premises.
Mr Jatuporn said Sen Surachai could break the law if he bowed to Mr Suthep's demands.
He said the pair must be held responsible and charged with instigating insurrection, adding that there would be no political power vacuum as the PDRC hoped.
The majority of the informal Senate session supported a proposal for an interim prime minister to be installed under Section 7 of the constitution.
Of the total 150 senators, 86 attended the meeting and most were appointed senators, including the anti-government Group of 40.
Lamphun Senator Tri Danphaiboon said the result of the informal Senate session could not be deemed as representing the collective opinion of the Senate as a whole.
Mr Tri said if the result of the session is wrongly used to represent the view of the entire Senate, the acting Senate speaker must take responsibility.
Day 4: Our Monday coverage
Young PDRC core leaders, seen here at Lumpini Park last night, are still claiming victory, but their plan for an interim government does not seem to winning much support.
As PDRC leaders close down their Lumpini Park rally site and move closer to Government House, they are still expressing confidence of ultimate victory, but their immediate demand for an appointed interim prime minister and and a people's reform government does not seem to be going anywhere. Not only that, but he Centre for the Administration of Peace and Order (Capo) is vowing to use police commandos to arrest 14 core members of the anti-government People’s Democratic Reform Committee’s (PDRC) including protest leader Suthep Thaugsuban.
Here are excerpts from Bangkok Post front-page stories this morning.
PDRC call for interim PM ‘likely to fail’
Pradit Ruangdit,Mongkol Bangprapa & Aekarach Sattaburuth
Judicial leaders, the Election Commission and the acting Senate speaker are unlikely to bow to the demands of anti-government protest group leader Suthep Thaugsuban to quickly nominate an interim prime minister, political observers say.
However, the Deputy Senate Speaker and acting Senate Speaker Surachai Liangboonlertchai, who was nominated as Speaker in a vote on Friday night, has called for an informal Senate meeting Monday to discuss the political impasse.
The move came amid rising political tensions between pro- and anti-government groups.
Mr Suthep on Saturday called for the presidents of the Constitutional, Supreme and Administrative courts, the Election Commission chairman and the Senate speaker to work out a plan to nominate an interim government for royal endorsement under the Section 7 of the constitution. He gave them until Monday to meet his demand; otherwise the protesters “would do it themselves”.
Political observers believe they are unlikely to meet Mr Suthep’s demands since the issue is sensitive and would put them at risk of committing illegal action.
A senior judge, who wished not to be named, Sunday voiced caution about the PDRC’s proposal, saying there is no clause in the charter to allow court presidents to act following such a request.
He said the proposal is sensitive and must be thoroughly considered as it involves the institution of the monarchy. He said the proposal would face opposition from pro-government groups.
The spotlight Monday will shine on Mr Surachai who is expected to call an informal meeting of senators to discuss the political situation and the EC’s meeting to discuss a royal decree on the election.
A senator source said Mr Surachai would not act to meet Mr Suthep demands directly but he would hold forums to hear views from several parties including academics and business operators to “find a way out”.
People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) guards line up in front of a yellow barricade at Government House. The group can use the Santi Maitree building for press conferences, but not the main Thai Khu Fa building in the background. PATIPAT JANTHONG
Swat team plan to arrest PDRC leaders
Capo unveils idea to target key figures
The Centre for the Administration of Peace and Order (Capo) is vowing to use police commandos to arrest 14 core members of the anti-government People’s Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC), including protest leader Suthep Thaugsuban.
Announcing the operation yesterday, Capo secretary Tarit Pengdith insisted that police would not attempt to disperse protesters, but would target leaders instead.
He cited the Office of the Attorney-General' s (OAG) decision on Thursday to indict 51 PDRC figures including 14 core leaders who already face arrest warrants for treason.
The court will today hear the OAG’s request to indict the 51 on 10 charges in connection with the group’s movements. Capo expects more arrest warrants to be issued soon after the hearing, Mr Tarit said.
Immediately after any warrants are issued, Capo will start its operation to arrest the 14 PDRC co-leaders. The Anti-Money Laundering Office will also be asked to freeze the suspects’ assets.
The operation is likely to lead to clashes and injuries, so members of the public who are not involved in the PDRC’s movements should avoid protest areas, he added.
Day 3: Our Sunday coverage
PDRC protesters have been packing their belongings today in preparation for a move back to the Ratchadamnoen area where leader Suthep Thaugsuban says the final victory will be declared. THANARAK KHOONTON.
People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) leader Suthep Thaugsuban has announced the closure of the Lumpini Park rally site and the opening of a new site outside the United Nations building in the Ratchadamnoen area. The site will also consolidate the main groups allied with the PDRC, namely the Dhamma Army and the Network of Students and People for the Reform of Thailand (NSPRT).
Suthep Thaugsuban, second right, and other PDRC leaders relax in the Santi Maitree building of Government House, which houses the office of the prime minister. Facebook, Suthep.
Here are excerpts from the Bangkok Post's front-page story on the political conflict.
As United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD) supporters massed along Aksa Road in the capital's western suburbs, anti-government movement leader Suthep Thaugsuban repeated his call for the Senate, the courts and the Election Commission to establish an interim "people's government".
The People's Democratic Reform Committee headed by Mr Suthep wants a response by Monday, or it will take matters into its own hands. Its leaders are now occupying a building at Government House, with the blessing of military officials responsible for security at the compound.
UDD leader Jatuporn Promphan said Mr Suthep's declaration of a political vacuum in a bid to get an unelected prime minister was an unconstitutional act.
The country, according to the former Pheu Thai MP, still had a caretaker prime minister in charge, after the Constitutional Court ruling that unseated Yingluck Shinawatra and nine of her ministers on Wednesday.
In fact, it is the leadership of the Senate that should be challenged, said Mr Jatuporn.
The Senate on Friday evening elected Surachai Liangboonlertchai, who is seen as sympathetic to anti-government causes, as its new speaker. Mr Surachai has called for a Senate meeting on Monday to discuss current developments.
"There is no Senate speaker yet as the vote for Khun Surachai was beyond the declared agenda under the royal decree for the extraordinary session," Mr Jatuporn said.
Acting premier Niwatthamrong Bunsongphaisan also indicated on Saturday that he would seek legal advice from the Council of State about the legitimacy of Mr Surachai's election.
No Senate speaker has ever been elected at an extraordinary session, said Mr Jatuporn. "More importantly, the nomination of the senate chair could only be legally effective when a prime minister countersigned the nomination."
The view from the ground and air at the Aksa Road rally site as red-shirts say they are the defenders of democracy. Photos by Pattarachai Preechapanich (ground) and Pattarapong Chatpattarasill.
Mr Jatuporn said the UDD was ready to continue its rally for as long as it takes to support the government. The sight of tents along a four-kilometre stretch at Aksa Road, not far from a residence of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn, indicated people were willing to stay for a week or longer.
He said the UDD would try to exercise full tolerance and not move anywhere yet.
PDRC supporters, meanwhile, shrugged off widespread condemnation of their media harassment campaign and surrounded the headquarters of local TV stations to make sure they carried Mr Suthep's "major announcement" at 4pm.
All of the free-TV channels except government-run NBT broadcast Mr Suthep's speech live but cut away once it became clear that he was merely repeating what he had said on Friday. Channel 7 even switched immediately to a report from the UDD rally.
PDRC co-leader Thaworn Senneam said demonstrators would wait at their rally venues until Monday and in the meantime would continue to inform the public about the government's misuse of administrative power.
Spokesman Akanat Promphan, also a stepson of Mr Suthep, said PDRC demonstrators had to stay at TV stations to convince them to stop broadcasting "distorted information" from the government's Centre for the Administration of Peace and Order (Capo).
11:00am update: It now looks likely that PDRC protesters will leave the TV channels to go to the Lumpini Park and Government House rally sites. They have already left Channel 9, saying officials there have been cooperating well. The move to pressure the channels has received much criticism.
Day 2: Our Saturday coverage
What's really going on? Bangkok Post editor Pichai Chuensuksawadi explains in a front-page analysis in today's Bangkok Post. Here are some excerpts. You can read the full story here:peaks" >http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/politics/409018/all-eyes-on-army-as-crisis-peaks
PDRC leader, Suthep Thuagsuban has renewed his call for an appointed prime minister. KRIT PROMSAKA NA SAKOLNAKORN
Jatuporn Prompan, leader of the United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD) immediately rejected Mr Suthep's demand as "unlawful". APICHART JINAKUL
Day two of the "all-out final battle" has almost ended and it is no longer a one-man show. Red-shirt leader Jatuporn Prompan has also had a lot to say today. Here are the latest developments. (More tomorrow)
PDRC leader, Suthep Thuagsuban, speaking outside Government House this afternoon, renewed his call for the Senate leader, the courts and the Election Commission to appoint an interim prime minister, leading to the establishment an interim "people's government".
"There is currently no prime minister, no caretaker prime minister, only an acting PM" who has very limited powers, said Mr Suthep.
His call was immediately rejected by Jatuporn Prompan, leader of the United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD). Mr Jatuporn called the proposal "unlawful", saying it could steer Thailand toward a civil war.
The red-shirt leader was speaking at Aksa Road, the site of the red-shirt mass rally in the capital's western suburbs.
Any attempt to involve the Senate leader could face legal challenges as well, as his appointment has not officially been approved by the King and there are also questions as whether the election in the Senate was proper.
Police apologise to PDRC rally leader Luang Pu Bhudda Issara for using tear gas against him yesterday. KITJA APICHONROJAREK
Meanwhile, Luang Pu Bhudda Issara has taken his followers back to Chaeng Wattana after receiving a rather dramatic apology from police involved in yesterday's tear gas incident.
The PDRC and its allies, e.g., the Dhamma Army are still surrounding free TV stations. Their objective today is to ensure that these channels broadcast a major announcement from PDRC leader Suthep Thuagsuban at 4pm from Government House. PDRC leaders say they have agreement from most, if not all, the channels to do so.
Members of the Dhamma Army are still camped outside Channel 5. KRIT PROMSAKA NA SAKOLNAKORN
Meanwhile, Luang Pu Bhudda Issara has brought protesters from his Chaeng Wattana site back to the headquarters of Centre for the Administration of Peace and Order (CAPO) on Viphavadi Road. Like yesterday, they are still outside and are demanding to see a CAPO representative. Luang Pu was reported to be feeling unwell from yesterday's tear gas incident but, apparently, he has recovered enough to led today's protest.
Red-shirts have begun gathering for their mass rally which begins tonight (Saturday). APICHART JINAKUL
A late-afterview view of the red-shirt rally which is scheduled to begin at 6pm. PATTARAPONG CHATPATTARASILL
At the same time, at the edge of Bangkok near Nakhon Prathom, red-shirts are gathering for their mass rally for the on the three-kilometre Utthayan Road linking Phuddhamonthon Sai 3 and Phuddhamonthon Sai 4 roads. Core red-shirt leaders are scheduled to start their speeches at 6pm. They say the rally could last one month if necesssary.
All eyes on army as crisis peaks
Suthep Thaugsuban’s move on Friday to mobilise anti-government protesters across the city is aimed at reinforcing his message that the caretaker government is inept and lacks legitimacy following the political blows it received this week.
Mr Suthep is trying to win over support from the leaders of three institutions which he believes still wield legitimate power — the Supreme Court president, the Senate speaker, and the Election Commission (EC) chairman — to push through the appointment of an interim prime minister under Section 7 of the charter.
As far as government supporters are concerned he will not succeed. And no matter how the political situation turns out this weekend, the role of the military is central to the current impasse — for better or worse.
Losing candidate for Senate Speaker Pol Gen Jongrak Jutanont (right-centre) holds up the hand of the winner Surachai Liangboonlertchai in Parliament yesterday. CHANAT KATANYU
The PDRC and its allies expressed satisfaction that Surachai Liangboonlertchai, the incumbent first deputy speaker and acting speaker, was elected the new Senate speaker last night.
The caretaker government had backed Pol Gen Jongrak Jutanont for the job.
The PDRC believes Sen Surachai will agree to the PDRC’s push for an interim PM through Section 7 of the constitution despite the fact that interpretation of the section is still disputed.
The law states: “Whenever no provision under this constitution is applicable to any case, it shall be decided in accordance with the constitutional practice in the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of State”.
Army chief Prayuth Chan-ocha (left) and Maj Gen Apirat Kongsompong
It remains to be seen whether the Supreme Court president, the new Senate speaker, and the Election Commission chairman will agree to Mr Suthep's demands.
If for whatever reason violence breaks out and the government is unable to control the situation, the military will be forced to step in.
Army chief Prayuth Chan-ocha, and his hand-picked right-hand man Maj Gen Apirat Kongsompong, commander of the 1st Division, King’s Guard, will be key decision-makers.
Day 1: Our Friday coverage
An aerial view of protesters converging on Government House before entering the compound yesterday. SITHIKORN WONGWUDTHIANUN
The PDRC ends the day within sight of Government House, but the group is still a long way from controlling it with a prime minister of their choice. SEKSAN ROJJANAMETAKUL
Day one of the "all-out final battle" goes to the PDRC. The anti-government group carried out their plans without opposition, but, as their leaders admit, their goal of an interim government and a people's council has not been met.
Tomorrow, the UDD begins their mass rally, complicating the PDRC' s attempt to seize power. Confrontation between the two groups is unlikely for now, however. UDD leaders have urged their follows to use restraint because they do not want to do anything that might provoke a military coup.
We'll be back tomorrow to see what happens.
PDRC leader Suthep Thuagsuban is escorted into parliament to see the acting Senate Speaker. PATTARACHAI PREECHAPANICH
An aerial view of the PDRC supporters who accompanied Mr Suthep to parliament. They stayed outside. SITHIKORN WONGWUDTHIANUN
As of 17:30, PDRC leaders, left to right, Akanat Promphan, Suthep Thuagsuban and Somsak Kosaisuk were still at Parliament awaitIng the vote on the new Senate speaker. They left a short time later. CHANAT KATANYU
Here, from our online reporters, is why Suthep Thaugsuban and other PDRC leaders went to parliament
The president of the Supreme Court and the senate speaker due to be selected today must set up an "interim people's government and legislative assembly" within the next few days, Suthep Thaugsuban, secretary-general of the anti-government People’s Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC), demanded on Friday.
Mr Suthep said from the protest stage outside Government House around midday on Friday that the president of the Supreme Court and the senate speaker now represent the remaining pillars of power in Thailand.
They should act to form an interim government within a few days.
He said the PDRC would wait for these senior national figures to act. If they do not respond, the PDRC would do the job itself. He did not elaborate.
Suthep Thuagsuban (right) in parliament this afternoon speaking to acting Senate speaker Surachai Liangbunlertchai (center)
Suthep Thuagsuban has led a large group of PDRC supporters from Government House to parliament. He was allowed to enter with a small group of leaders and he presented a letter to acting Senate Speaker Surachai Liangbunlertchai asking that the Senate take an active role in leading the country out of its current impasse.
The first confrontation of the day has just taken place outside the well-defended Centre for the Administration of Peace and Order (CAPO) on Viphavadi Road. Luang Pu Bhudda Issara led protesters from the Chaeng Wattana site there late this morning to protest recent grenade attacks. It was quiet until, according to the Bangkok Post, Lu Pu and at least some members of the group attempted to enter the CAPO area after waiting unsuccessfully to meet with a CAPO representatives. Police then fired tear gas and water cannon. Bangkok Metropolitan Administration's Erawan medical centre reported at 1.07pm two men and two women were injured and sent to Vibhavadi Hospital.
The group trying to approach CAPO headquarters with Luang Pu Bhudda Issara was greeted with both water cannon and tear gas. THANARAK KHOONTON
Update: Luang Pu himself was said to be one of those treated for injuries, according to the Bangkok Post. He has now brought his group back to Chaeng Wattana. An opposing group that had threatened to expel his group from that rally site has now decided not to try to do so -- today's at least.
PDRC leader and supporters have reached the Government House area. Here Mr Suthep discusses the situation with Nitithorn Lamlua, advisor to Network of Students and People for the Reform of Thailand (NSPRT) whose rally site is outside Government House PATTARACHAI PREECHAPANICH
Outside Government House, Spring TV reports that Mr Suthep will likely lead a march to parliament this afternoon where the Senate is scheduled to elect a new president. It is not clear what the purpose of the march will be, but the PDRC is watching closely to see if the new president is allied to the current government, not something that would make them happy. Thai PBS reports the march to parliament will likely take place after 3pm. Mr Suthep and his group are planning to stay overnight at/outside Government House.
PDRC protesters outside NBT (Channel 11) a short time ago. KRIT PROMSAKA NA SAKOLNAKORN
Post Today reports that PDRC core leader Thavorn Senniam and a group of about 500 supporters reached government-run Channel 11. Guards allowed the group through the gates, but not into the building itself. Mr Thavorn vowed to stay at the channel overnight and longer if necessary.
PDRC leaders hold talk with Channel 7 officials this morning. The channel has apparently agreed to curtail coverage of the government. PHRAKRIT JUNTAWONG
Apart from Channel 5 which has been surrounded by Dhamma Army members, PDRC protesters are now outside Channels 3 and 7.
Veteran PAD leader outside Channel 5 this morning. POST TODAY
The Dhamma Army has arrived at Thai TV Channel 5. Veteran People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) leader Chamlong Srimuang is with them. Suthep Thuagsuban is on Phya Thai road on his way to Government House.
If you are travelling, the Phaholyothin area near Channel 5 is a place to avoid. PORNPROM STRABHAYA
Here is a summary of the situation from our online reporters:
Anti-government protest leader Suthep Thaugsuban said Friday he would wait all day at the long-shuttered Government House if new acting caretaker Prime Minister Niwatthamrong Boonsongpaisarn or any other cabinet member wants to drop by his rally for talks.
"If anyone see Mr Niwatthamrong, please tell him or invite him to have a talk with Luong Kamnan", (Uncle Kamnan), as Mr Suthep has dubbed himself in recent months.
Mr Suthep also said he would welcome visits by Tarit Pengdit, chief of the Department of Special Investigation (DSI) and Chaikasem Nitisiri, caretaker justice minister.
Mr Suthep led protesters to Government House, which has been closed for months, and said he would wait for Mr Niwatthamrong there.
He said protesters would be "visiting" TV stations as well as Government House, and would welcome food and drinks from the community.
The PDRC on Friday divided into six groups heading to different locations for the 11th "final battle" to bring down the government, now depleted by Tuesday's disqualification by the Constitutional Court of ex-premier Yingluck Shinawatra and 10 ministers. Lumpini Park stage will remain the main site of the protest for meals, evening rallies and overnight stay.
Mr Suthep has now asked the leaders of current caretaker cabinet to meet with him at Government House. Also, the marches to TV channels are supposed to be aimed, not at shutting them down, but to require them to cover his press conferences and to stop reporting on the current government.
PDRC leader Suthep Thuagsuban is now on the Lumpini Park stage detailing what it going to happen. Blue Sky TV says this includes a march to Government House while other groups focus on free TV channels, including channels 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, demanding they stop reporting on the current government. He wants a change of government with three days, he says.
Democrat Theptai Seanapong has just tweeted that this is the beginning of a "people's coup" .
PDRC leader Suthep Thuagsuban found enthusiastic support on the streets yesterday, but how many will show up for the "all-out final battle"? THITI WANNAMONTHA
We will be watching today to see how many of possible protest actions actually happen.
PDRC kicks off ‘all-out final battle’
Non-stop protesting is hot, hard work. THITI WANNAMONTHA
The anti-government People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) will kick off its "all-out final battle" rally Friday, with the possibility that they might attempt to occupy major government buildings and lay siege to free-to-air TV stations, according to a source in the PDRC.
Invigorated by the Constitutional Court' s ruling that ousted caretaker prime minister Yingluck Shinawatra and nine of her cabinet ministers on Wednesday, the PDRC abruptly brought forward its planned rally from next Wednesday to Friday.
As part of its promised last-ditch attempt to seize power and replace the caretaker cabinet with an interim government, the PDRC was preparing to mobilise its supporters to occupy Government House, the headquarters of the government, said the same PDRC source.
Parliament was also being considered as another target, but that occupation would probably be carried out at a later date, said the source.
The PDRC wants to seize parliament because the building will be needed for the process of selecting members of what it has described as a "people's council" , which will be responsible for leading reforms before a new election is called, the source added.
Aside from these two main government buildings, the PDRC was also considering occupying the Royal Thai Police Office, the Interior Ministry and the Defence Ministry, the source said.
The PDRC protesters led by Luang Pu Buddha Isara at the Chaeng Watthana rally site would act as a rapid-deployment unit for the PDRC' s seizure of these government offices, while other supporters of the PDRC remaining at the main Lumpini Park rally site, would follow later, the same source said.
Some free-to-air television channel stations were also being considered as targets by the PDRC.
Pro-government United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD) chairman Jatuporn Prompan, meanwhile, confirmed Thursday that the red shirts would hold a major rally Saturday on Utthayan Road.
The UDD would also invite Ms Yingluck to the gathering, Mr Jatuporn said.
He said political developments in the country have been shifting rapidly, as the movement to overthrow democracy was speeding up its attempt to install a new prime minister through Section 7 of the constitution.
The red-shirt supporters should now prepare to fight the person who has been pulling the strings of the independent agencies which are trying to oust the caretaker government, he said.
"Here is the message to all UDD leaders and red-shirt supporters: Our current enemy is the 'smart elite system'," Mr Jatuporn said.
Learn from listening
Click "play" to listen to "All-out final battle" (updated Wednesday) and "Download" to keep this file for educational purpose.
abruptly: suddenly and unexpectedly, and often unpleasant - อย่างกะทันหัน
academic: someone who teaches at a college, or who studies as part of their job - นักวิชาการ
acting: doing the work of the usual person in a particular job while they are not there, or until a new person starts - ที่รักษาการแทน
administrative: involving the plan, organising and running of a business, an institution, etc - เกี่ยวกับการบริหาร
admit: to agree that something is true, especially when you are unhappy, sorry or surprised about it - ยอมรับ
aerial: (of a photograph) from a plane or helicopter - ภาพถ่ายทางอากาศ
agenda: a list of things that people will discuss at a meeting - ระเบียบวาระ
aim: to have as your purpose or goal - มีเป้าหมาย มีจุดมุ่งหมาย
allied: connected with something - ซึ่งมีความสัมพันธ์กัน
ally: a person, group, organisation or country who helps and supports another person, group, organisation or country - คนกลุ่มหรือประเทศที่อยู่ในกลุ่มเดียวกัน
amid: during the time when something else is happening - ท่ามกลาง
apology: an act of saying sorry - คำขอโทษ
applicable: relevant to or affecting a particular situation - ที่สามารถนับไปปรับใช้ได้
appointment: when someone is officially chosen for a job - การแต่งตั้ง
arrest: (of the police) to take someone to a police station because they are believed to have committed a crime - จับกุม
arrest warrant: a document signed by a judge allowing police to arrest someone - หมายจับ
assembly: a group of people who have been elected or chosen in order to discuss issues and make decisions - สภา, สมัชชา
at risk: in danger - ตกอยู่ในความเสี่ยง
Attorney-General: the top legal officer in some countries, who advises the leader of the government - อัยการสูงสุด
avoid: to stay away from a place; to try to prevent something from happening - หลีกเลี่ยง
back: to support - สนับสนุน
barricade: a temporary structure built to prevent someone/something from getting past - แผงหรือแนวรั้วกั้น
bid: an attempt to do something - ความพยายาม
blessing: approval; acceptance - การยินยอม, การเห็นชอบ
blow: an event that damages your chances of success - สิ่งที่ทำให้เกิดความเสียหาย
bow to: to agree to do what someone wants you to do even though you do not want to - ยอมทำตาม
broadcast: to send out a programme on television or radio - กระจายเสียง,กระจายข่าว
burst in: to enter a place very suddenly - พังเข้ามา
cabinet ministers: government ministers who meet as a group (the cabinet) to make and approve government policy - คณะรัฐมนตรี
campaign: a planned series of activities - การรณรงค์
candidate: a person who is trying to be elected - ผู้สมัครรับเลือกตั้ง
caretaker: in charge for a short time, until a new leader or government is chosen - รักษาการ
cause: movement; an aim, idea, or organisation that you support or work for - วัตถุประสงค์ อุดมการณ์
caution: careful thought and lack of hurry in order to try to avoid risks or danger - ความระมัดระวัง
challenge: questioning whether something is true, accurate, or legal - การคัดค้าน
charge : an official statement accusing someone of committing a crime - ข้อกล่าวหา
charter: a constitution - รัฐธรรมนูญ
cite: to mention something as an example - กล่าวถึง
civil war: a war fought by different groups of people living in the same country - สงครามกลางเมือง
clash: a fight between groups of people - การปะทะกันสองฝ่าย
clause: an item in a legal document that says that a particular thing must or must not be done - มาตรา
collective: involving all the members of a group - ที่เป็นจำนวนมาก ที่เป็นกลุ่มใหญ่
commander: the head of an army or army unit - ผู้บังคับบัญชา
commando: a soldier trained to attack in areas controlled by an enemy - สมาชิกของหน่วยจู่โจม
commit: to do something wrong or illegal - ทำความผิด
complicate: to make something more difficult to deal with, do or understand - ทำให้ยาก, ทำให้ซับซ้อน
compound: an area enclosed by a fence or wall in which people work or live - บริเวณ
condemnation: a public statement in which someone criticises someone or something severely - การประนามหยามเหยียด
conflict: an angry disagreement between people or groups - ความขัดแย้ง
confrontation: a situation in which people or groups are arguing angrily or are fighting - การเผชิญหน้า
consider: to give careful thought to something before making a decision - พิจารณา
consolidate: to bring together to form one unit - รวมเป็นหนึ่ง
constitution: the set of laws and basic principles that a country in governed by - รัฐธรรมนูญ
Constitutional Court: the court that decides whether or not laws follow the constitution - ศาลรัฐธรรมนูญ
converge: to come from different directions to reach the same point - ไปยังจุดหมายเดียวกัน
convey: to communicate something; to express a thought, feeling or idea so that it is understood by other people - สื่อไปถึง, สื่อสาร
cooperate: to work with other people to achieve a result that is good for everyone involved - ร่วมมือกัน
core leader: one of the most active or most important leaders of a group - แกนนำ
council: a group of people chosen to give advice, make rules, do research, provide money - สภา, คณะกรรมการ
countersign: to sign a document that has already been signed by another person, especially in order to show that it is valid - ลงนามร่วม
coup: the seizure of power in a country by a group of people, usually members of the armed forces - รัฐประหาร
coverage: the reporting of news and sport in newspapers and on the radio and television - การรายงานข่าว
crisis: an urgent, difficult or dangerous situation - วิกฤตการณ์
current: of the present time - ปัจจุบัน
curtail: to reduce or limit something - จำกัด, ลด
decisive: strong; firm - ซึ่งเด็ดเดี่ยว
declaration: an official announcement that something is true or is happening - การประกาศ
decline: to say politely that you will not accept something or do something - ปฏิเสธที่จะทำ
decree: an official decision or order made by a leader or government - พระราชกฤษฎีกา
deemed: considered - เห็นว่า ถือว่า
defend: to protect against an attack - ป้องกัน,ต้าน
demonstrators: people who march with other people in public to show that they support or oppose something - ผู้ชุมนุมประท้วง
Department of Special Investigation: DSI; a police department investigating serious crimes involving influential people, organised crime, or crimes using highly sophisticated technology - กรมสอบสวนคดีพิเศษ
deplete: to reduce something by a large amount so that there is not enough left - ทำให้หมดสิ้นหรือลดน้อยลงมาก
deputy: a person whose rank is immediately below that of the leader of an organisation - รอง
detail: to give a list of facts or all the available information about something - อธิบายโดยละเอียด, ชี้แจงรายละเอียด
disperse: (of a crowd) to cause to separate and move in different directions, i.e., to end being a crowd - สลาย (การชุมนุม)
disputed: involved in a disagreement - มีความขัดแย้ง
disqualification: a decision not to allow someone to do something because they have done something wrong - การตัดสิทธิ
distorted: changed something such as information so that it is no longer true or accurate - บิดเบือน
doubt: to think that something is probably not true, that it probably won't happen or that it probably does not exist - สงสัย
dramatic: sudden, very great and often surprising - ตื่นเต้นเร้าใจ
drop by: to pay an informal visit to a person or a place - เยี่ยมเยียนอย่างไม่เป็นทางการ
dubbed: called; given a name - ถูกเรียก ตั้งฉายา
effective: officially begun to be used ; to take effect - มีผล
elaborate: to add more information to or explain something that you have said - อธิบายเพิ่มเติม
Election Commission (EC): the independent government agency that oversees elections - คณะกรรมการเลือกตั้ง
elements: sets or groups of people - องค์ประกอบ
elite: the richest, most powerful, best educated or most highly trained group in a society - คนที่มีอภิสิทธิ์ที่สุด
engage in: to take part in a particular activity - มีส่วนร่วมใน
ensure: to make certain that something happens or is done - ให้การยืนยัน, รับรอง, ให้ความมั่นใจ
enthusiastic: showing a feeling of energetic interest in a particular subject or activity and an eagerness to be involved in it - กระตือรือร้น
escalate: to make something increase in amount or strength; to make larger; to scale up; to ramp up - ยกระดับ; เสริม
establishment: the process of starting or creating something - การสถาปนา, การก่อตั้ง, การจัดตั้ง
exercise: the use of your power, rights, or skills - การใช้
extraordinary: done in addition to the normal activities of an organisation - เป็นพิเศษ
figure: someone who is important in some way - บุคคลสำคัญ
for better or worse: used to say that something cannot be changed, whether the result is good or bad -
forum: a place where people can express their ideas and opinions - ที่แสดงความคิดเห็น, การประชุมแสดงความคิดเห็น
freeze assets: (of a court) to order that things owned by someone, especially money and property, cannot be used by the owner until a final court decision has been made - ยึดหรือพิทักษ์ทรัพย์
function: to operate; to work in the correct way - ปฏิบัติงาน
gathering: an occasion when many people come together as a group - การรวมตัว, การประชุม
goal: aim; purpose - เป้าหมาย จุดมุ่งหมาย
gracious: showing kindness and good manners - ซึ่งมีมารยาท, งดงาม, สง่างาม
grenade: a small bomb that someone throws or fires from a gun - ลูกระเบิดเล็ก
hand-picked: specially chosen -
harassment: annoying or worrying somebody by putting pressure on them or saying or doing unpleasant things to them - การข่มขู่, การรบกวน, การก่อกวน
headquarters: the place where an organisation or company has its main offices - กองบัญชาการ
immediate: of the most importance and needed to be dealt with now - ปัจจุบัน
impasse: a situation in which progress is not possible because none of the people involved are willing to change their decision - ทางตัน
implement: to make something such as an idea, plan, system or law start to work and be used - นำแผนหรือนโยบายมาปฏิบัติ, นำมาใช้
in the meantime: during the time between two events or between the present time and a future event - เวลาในระหว่างนั้น
incumbent: a person who holds an official position at the present time - ผู้ดำรงตำแหน่ง
independent agency: a government department or agency that iis independent of the main government administration - องค์การอิสระ
indict: to officially accuse someone of a serious crime - ฟ้องร้อง
inept: not having much ability or skill - ซึ่งขาดความสามารถ
informal: not official or recognized by government; lacking formal organization - ไม่เป็นทางการ
initiate: to make something start - ริเริ่ม
injured: hurt in an accident or attack - ได้รับบาดเจ็บ
injury: physical damage done to a person or a part of their body - อาการบาดเจ็บ
insist: to keep saying very firmly that something is true - ยืนกราน ยืนยัน
instigate: to cause something bad to happen; to make something start or happen, usually something official - ก่อให้เกิด, กระตุ้น
institution: an important tradition or system upon which society is based - สถาบัน
insurrection: an attempt by a large group of people to take control of their country by force - การกบฏ
interim: temporary and intended to be used or accepted until something permanent exists - ชั่วคราว
interim government: a government that is intended to last only a short time until a permanent government is chosen - รัฐบาลรักษาการณ์
Interior Ministry: the Thai ministry with responsibility over the Royal Thai Police, local administrations, internal security, citizenship, disaster management, land management, issuing national identity cards and public works - กระทรวงมหาดไทย
interpretation: an explanation of the meaning or importance of something - การตีความ
invigorate: to make somebody feel healthy and full of energy - ทำให้กระปี้กระเปร่า, ทำให้มีชีวิตชีวา
involved: taking part or having a role in something - เกี่ยวข้อง
ire: anger - ความกริ้วโกรธ, ความโมโห
issue: a problem that needs to be considered - ประเด็น
issue: to officially announce or give out - ออก, ออกประกาศ, ออกคำสั่ง
judicial: relating to the courts of law - ในชั้นศาล
key: very important - ที่สำคัญ
kick off: to begin an event; to launch - เริ่มต้น, เริ่มทำ
lack: to not have something needed - ขาด
lambast: to criticise someone or something severely -
last-ditch: an effort or attempt which is made at the end of a series of failures to solve a problem, and is not expected to succeed - ที่สุดท้าย, ที่ทำครั้งสุดท้าย
lay siege to: (of a group of people) to surround (go around all sides of) a building or place in order to protest about something or to force the people on the inside out - เข้าห้อมล้อม เข้ายึด
legal: relating to the law - เกี่ยวกับกฎหมาย
legality: the fact that something is allowed by the law - ความถูกต้องตามกฎหมาย
legislative: involving the part of government responsible for creating new laws - เกี่ยวข้องกับสภานิติบัญญัติ
legitimacy: that fact that something is legal; the fact that something is fair and reasonable - ถูกต้องตามกฎหมาย ความชอบธรรม
legitimate: allowed by the law, or correct according to the law - ชอบด้วยกฎหมาย
live: happening now, i.e., not recorded earlier - ถ่ายทอดสด
majority: more than 50 percent of a group - เสียงส่วนใหญ่
mass: to gather in large numbers - รวมกันเป็นกลุ่ม, รวมกันหนาแน่น
meanwhile: at the same time - ในเวลาเดียวกัน
measure: an action taken to solve a particular problem - มาตรการ
media: radio, television, newspaper, the Internet, considered as a group - สื่อ
misuse: to use something in an unsuitable way or in a way that was not intended - ใช้ในทางที่ผิด
mobilise: to organise a group of people to do something - ระดมกำลัง
monarchy: a type of government in which a country is ruled by a king or queen - การปกครองที่มีพระมหากษัตริย์เป็นประมุข
money laundering: hiding the origin of money obtained from illegal activities by putting it into legal businesses - การฟอกเงิน
movement: a group of people who share the same aim and work together to achieve it - การเคลื่อนไหวเพื่อวัตถุประสงค์ทางการเมือง
nominate: to formally propose someone for a job - เสนอชื่อ
nomination: an official suggestion that someone should get a job - การเสนอชื่อเข้ารับตำแหน่ง
objective: what you plan to achieve; goal; aim; purpose - เป้าหมาย
observer: a person who watches and analyses a situation - ผู้สังเกตการณ์
occupation: the act of going into a place and taking control away from the people or government there - การเข้ายึดครอง
occupy: to be in control of a place that you have entered in a group using force - เข้าครอบครอง
operation: a planned activity involving a lot of people, especially soldiers or police officers - การปฏิบัติการ
opinion: your feelings or thoughts about somebody/something, rather than a fact - ความเห็น, ความคิดเห็น, ทัศนคติ
opposition: fighting against an opponent; being against something/someone - การต่อต้าน, การคัดค้าน
order: a situation in which everything is well organized or arranged - ความเป็นระเบียบเรียบร้อย
otherwise: if not; used for saying that if one thing does not happen or is not true, something else will happen, usually something bad - มิฉะนั้น, ไม่เช่นนั้น
ousted: forced out of a position of power - ที่ถูกขับออกจากตำแหน่ง
outrage: extreme anger - ความโกรธอย่างรุนแรง
overthrow: to force a leader or government out of power - ขับไล่ออกจากอำนาจ
PAD: People’s Alliance for Democracy; the union of several groups protesting against the Samak, Somchai and Abhisit and now Yingluck governments and which staged large protests against the Thaksin government as well - พันธมิตรประชาชนเพื่อประชาธิปไตย
parliament: the group of people who are elected to make and change the laws of a country; the building where members of parliament meet. - รัฐสภา
party: one of the people or groups of people involved in a situation, an official argument or arrangement - คู่กรณี
PDRC: People's Democratic Reform Committee, an anti-government protest group, headed by Suthep Thuagsuban - กปปส. คณะกรรมการประชาชนเพื่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงประเทศไทยให้เป็นประชาธิปไตยที่สมบูรณ์ อันมีพระมหากษัตริย์ทรงเป็นประมุข.
peak: to reach the highest amount or level, before becoming lower - ขึ้นจนถึงจุดสุดยอด
permission: allowing someone to do something - การอนุญาต,การอนุมัติ,การยินยอม
pillar: a strong column made of stone, metal or wood which supports part of a building or structure - เสาหลัก
political vacuum: a situation where there is no government or no clear leadership in a country, organisation, etc. - สูญญากาศทางการเมือง
possibility: the fact that something might exist or happen, but is not certain to - สิ่งที่เป็นไปได้
practice: a way of doing something - การปฏิบัติ
premises: the buildings and land that a business or organisation uses - ที่ดินและสิ่งปลูกสร้าง
press conference: an official meeting where someone makes a formal statement about a particular issue or event to journalists and answers their questions about it - การแถลงข่าว
pressure: to try to make someone do something by forcing, threatening, or persuading them in a determined way - กดดัน
private sector: businesses and industries that are not owned or controlled by the government - ภาคเอกชน
privy councillor: a member of the group of appointed advisors to the King of Thailand - องคมนตรี
process: a series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result - แนวทางปฏิบัติ, กระบวน, วิธีการ
proposal: a plan or suggestion for a group to consider - ข้อเสนอ
protester: someone who shows that they disagree with something by standing somewhere, shouting, carrying signs, etc - ผู้ต่อต้าน, ผู้ประท้วง
provision: a part of an agreement or law that deals with a particular problem - มาตรา, บทบัญญัติ,
provoke: to cause a reaction - ก่อให้เกิด
pulling the strings: controlling a situation from an unseen position -
rally: a large public gathering of people to support someone or to protest against something - การชุมนุม
rally site: a place where a large public gathering happens - สถานที่ชุมนุม
rapid-deployment unit: a military or police unit that can be put into action very quickly - หน่วยเคลื่อนที่เร็ว
referendum: an occasion when all the people of a country can vote on an important issue - การลงประชามติ
reform: a change that is intended to correct a situation that is wrong or unfair - การแก้ไข การปฏิรูป
regime: a system for oreganizing and controlling some activity -
reinforce: to make stronger - เสริมให้แข็งแรงขึ้น
reject: to not agree with a request, offer or proposal - ปฏิเสธ ไม่ยอมรับ
replace: to change from one thing to another - แทน
residence: a place where someone lives - ที่พำนัก ที่อาศัย
resolve: to solve a problem, or to find a satisfactory way of dealing with it - แก้ไขปัญหา
respected: admired by many people for your qualities or achievements - ที่เคารพ
responsible for: to have a duty to do something - มีความรับผิดชอบ
restraint: the quality of behaving calmly and with control - การอดกลั้น
role: the position or purpose that someone or something has in a situation, organisation, society or relationship - บทบาท
ruling : a decision by a court of law - คำตัดสิน คำชี้ขาด
satisfaction: a feeling that you are pleased and satisfied - ความพอใจ
secretariat: a group of senior people within a government or organisation - สำนักเลขาธิการ
security: protection; systems providing for safety from attack, harm, or damage - ระบบรักษาความปลอดภัย
seize: to take control of by force or official power - ยึกครอง
seizure: the act of taking control of something, especially by using power or force - การบุกเข้ายึด
select: to choose - คัดเลือก
senate speaker: the Senate president; the person who is in charge of political debates in the Senate - ประธานวุฒิสภา
senior: a person who is older than you - ผู้อาวุโส
senior: with a high rank or position - อาวุโส
sensitive: needed to be dealt with very carefully to not cause anger or offence - ที่ละเอียดอ่อน
session: a formal meeting, or a series of meetings, of an institution such as a parliament or a court - การประชุม, สมัยการประชุม
shift: to change - เปลี่ยน
shrug off: to show that something does not worry or upset you - ไม่เอาใจใส่, ไม่สนใจ
shutter: to close, especially a business - ปิดตัวลง
solely: only; not involving somebody/something else - แต่ผู้เดียว
source: someone who gives information - แหล่งข่าว
spark: to make something happen, especially something bad - ก่อให้เกิด
spotlight: the centre of public attention - จุดสนใจของผู้คน, เป็นที่สนใจ
stakeholder: someone who has an interest in the success of a plan, system, or organization, for example a worker in a company or the parent of a child at a school - ผู้ถือผลประโยชน์ร่วม
steer: to control the direction in which something or someone moves - นำทาง ถือพวงมาลัย
stir: to say or do things that cause trouble between people - ปลุกเร้า
struggle: to try hard to do something that you find very difficult - พยายาม; ต่อสู้
suburb: an area or town near a large city but away from its centre - ชานเมือง
supreme court: the highest court in a country - ศาลฎีกา, ศาลสูงสุด
surrounded: having something,people, etc. completely around all sides - ถูกล้อมรอบ
swat team: a group of police officers who are especially trained to deal with violent situations.SWAT stands for ‘Special Weapons and Tactics’ -
sympathetic: approving of and supportind someone or something - เห็นอกเห็นใจ
take matters into your own hands: to act alone without waiting for others to help you - ทำด้วยตัวเอง
target: a person, business, building, area, etc., that someone intends to attack or deal with - เป้าหมาย
target: to direct something at someone or something - ตั้งเป้าหมาย
tear gas: a gas used by some police and armed forces to control crowds of people. It hurts the eyes and makes them produce tears - ก๊าซน้ำตา
tensions: the feelings caused by a lack of trust between people, groups or countries who do not agree about something and may attack each other - ความตึงเครียด
tied up: busy doing something and therefore unable to do something else; having an appointment to do something - ติดธุระ
tolerance: the willingness to accept somebody/something, especially opinions or behaviour that you may not agree with, or people who are not like you - การยอมรับความคิดเห็นของผู้อื่น, ความอดกลั้น
treason: the crime of trying to destroy your country’s government (also rebellion an attempt to remove a government or leader by force) - การก่อกบฏ
turmoil: a state of uncontrolled activity - การจราจล ความไม่สงบ
ultimate: final, after a series of things have happened - ท้ายที่สุด, ตอนสุดท้าย, ในที่สุด
unconstitutional: against the rules stated in the constitution - ไม่เป็นไปตามรัฐธรรมนูญ
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD): the group originally formed to demonstrate against the 2006 coup and which supported the Somchai Wongsawat government against the PAD and which led the fight against the Abhisit government. They are known for wearing red shirts - แนวร่วมประชาธิปไตยต่อต้านเผด็จการแห่งชาติ
unlikely: not expected to happen; probably won’t happen - ที่ไม่น่าจะเกิดขึ้น
unseat: to remove somebody from a position of power - ถอดจากตำแหน่ง
unveil: to announce something that was not known before - เปิดเผยข้อมูล
urgent: needing to be dealt with immediately - ที่เร่งด่วน
venues: places were public events or meetings take place - สถานที่ชุมนุม พบปะสังสรรค์
veteran: a person who has a lot of experience in a particular area or activity - ผู้อาวุโส
violence: physical force with the deliberate intention of causing damage to property or injury or death to people - ความรุนแรง, การใช้กำลังทำลาย
vow: to make a formal and serious promise to do something - สาบาน, ปฏิญาณ
water cannon: a machine that produces a powerful flow of water, used by the police to control crowds of people -
widespread: happening or existing in many places, or affecting many people - อย่างแพร่หลาย
wield: to have and be able to use power or influence - ใช้อำนาจ
woes: great problems or troubles - ความเสียใจ, ความทุกข์ร้อน
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