Court cases in the news | Bangkok Post: learning

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Court cases in the news

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There are currently four big legal cases in the news involving four different courts. We’ll look at the kind of vocabulary you are like to see in each of these cases, but first let’s look at some general vocabulary commonly found in court cases of all types. All come from recent Bangkok Post stories. 

Act – a law passed by a country’s government พ.ร.บ. พระราชบัญญัติ
admit – to agree that something is true, especially when you are unhappy, sorry or surprised about it  ยอมรับ
alleged – claimed to be true although not yet proven ที่ถูกกล่าวหา
charge – an official statement accusing someone of committing a crime ข้อหา
client – a customer or someone who receives services of a lawyer ลูกความ
constitution – the set of laws and basic principles that a country in governed by รัฐธรรมนูญ
convicted – proven in a court of law to have committed a crime การกระทำผิดกฎหมาย
counsel – a lawyer who gives someone legal advice and represents them in a court of law ทนายความ
cross-examination – (in court) asking a witness questions during a trial after another lawyer has already asked them questions
defendant – someone who has been accused of a crime and is on trial จำเลย
guilty – having been decided by a court of law that you committed the crime your were accused of  มีความผิด
illicit – against the law ผิดกฎหมาย
innocent – not having done anything wrong บริสุทธิ์
plaintiff – someone who makes a legal complaint against someone else in court โจทก์
procedure – a way of doing something  ขั้นตอนการดำเนินการ
prosecution – the person or organisation that tries to prove in court that someone has committed a crime อัยการ
ruling – a decision by a court of law คำตัดสิน คำชี้ขาด
sentence – a punishment given by a court of law การตัดสินลงโทษ
submit – to formally give something to someone so that can make a decision about it ยื่น (เอกสาร) เพื่อการพิจารณา
testify – to make a statement about something that you saw, know, or experienced, usually in a court of law ให้การเป็นพยาน
trial – the process of examining a case in a court of law and deciding whether someone has or has not committed a crime  การพิจารณาคดี
verdict – a decision by a court of law คำพิพากษา
violate – to do something that is against a law, agreement, principle, etc. ละเมิดกฎหมาย
witness – someone who tells a court or investigators what they know about a crime พยาน


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Case one

Map Ta Phut projects case heard in the Administrative Court

Administrative Court – the court which deals with disputes between the private sector and government agencies ศาลปกครอง

The case involved 76 industrial projects in the Map Ta Phut area of Rayong. They were ordered suspended by the Administrative Court until it could be determined whether or not they violated the constitutional requirements on protecting the environment. In the end, the court revoked the suspension of all but two of them, angering and disappointing many residents there. Here is some of the vocabulary from the latest story on the case.

burst into tears – to suddenly start to cry
comply with – to obey a rule or law or do what someone asks you to do  ปฏิบัติตาม
defeat – a loss ความพ่ายแพ้
despair – the feeling that there is no hope and that you can do nothing to improve a difficult or worrying situation สิ้นหวัง, ความรู้สึกสิ้นหวัง, ความหมดหวัง
impact – an effect or influence  ผลกระทบ
off the hook – having avoided a duty, an unpleasant situation, or a punishment ปล่อยให้เป็นอิสระจาก (ความยุ่งยาก, ความรับผิดชอบ, การตัดสินใจ)
operating permit – official permission to carry out a business activity ใบอนุญาตประกอบกิจการ
permit – an official document that gives you permission to do something ใบอนุญาต
residents – people who live in a particular area ประชาชนที่อาศัยในท้องที่
revoke – to officially say that something is no longer legal, e.g., a contract, a law, a document, etc.  เพิกถอน , ยกเลิก
sincerity – (of a person, feelings or behaviour) not pretending or lying; honest ความจริงใจ, ตรงไปตรงมา
slam (blast) – to strongly criticise someone or something  วิพากษ์วิจารณ์อย่างรุนแรง
syndrome – a medical condition that has a particular set of effects on your body or mind อาการของโรคต่างๆ ที่เกิดขึ้นพร้อมๆ กัน
terminate – to end or stop something ทำให้สิ้นสุด
 


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Case 2

Democrat Party dissolution case heard by the Constitution Court

Constitution Court – a court which decides whether a government law, action, political party, etc., is correct according to the constitution ศาลรัฐธรรมนูญ

This case will decide if the Democrat Party should be dissolved for breaking the Political Part Act by accepting and failing to report donations and improperly using campaign funds. Here is vocabulary from a recent story on this case. Much of that story dealt with the credibility of one witness who had got into financial trouble.

alleged – claimed to be true although not yet proven ที่ถูกกล่าวหา
conspiracy – a secret plan by a group of people to do something bad or illegal  การวางแผนอย่างลับๆ การสมรู้ร่วมคิด
collusion – secretly working together to do something dishonest การสมรู้ร่วมคิด
credibility – the degree to which someone or something can be believed or trusted ความน่าเชื่อถือ,ความน่าไว้วางใจ
disbanded – (of a group) dissolved; ended; stopped working together ถูกยุบ
donation – money or goods that you give to an organisation, especially one that helps people เงินบริจาค
dissolve – (of a group) to end ยุบ (พรรค)
foreclosure – the process of taking someone’s property because they failed to pay back the money that they borrowed to buy it การยึดทรัพย์สินที่จำนองไว้  
founder - a person who establishes an institution, business, or organisation ผู้ก่อตั้ง
implicate – to show or suggest that someone is involved in something illegal or morally wrong   โยงใยถึง
mortgage – a legal agreement in which you borrow money from a bank in order to buy a house, build something, develop a piece of land, etc.การจำนอง
redeem – to get something back again by paying someone the money that they paid you for it, especially when the money was a type of loan ซื้อคืนมา
subject to – affected by ภายใต้บังคับ (กฎหมาย)
 


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Case 3

Viktor Bout extradition case heard in the Appeals Court

Appeal Court (Court of Appeal) – a court that decides requests that a decision made by a lower court be changed ศาลอุทธรณ์ 

The United States has requested that alleged illegal arms dealer Viktor Bout of Russia be extradited to the United States for trial. A lower court rejected the request, but that was overturned recently by the Appeal Court. Here is some vocabulary seen in two recent stories.

arms – weapons อาวุธ
attorney-general – the top legal officer in some countries, who advises the leader of the government อัยการสูงสุด
block – to use your power to stop something from being done or from succeeding กีดขวาง
cargo – things that are being sent by ship, plane, train or truck  สินค้าที่บรรทุกและจัดส่งโดยเรือ เครื่องบินหรือรถไฟ
concerned – involved in something, or affected by something ที่สัมพันธ์กับ
consent – to give permission to do something ยอมให้ทำ, อนุญาต
controversy – a strong disagreement, especially about a public policy or moral issue ความขัดแย้ง  ประเด็นข้อขัดแย้ง
Corrections Department – the government department in charge of running prisons กรมราชทัณฑ์
custody – under the control of the police, usually in a jail อยู่ใต้การคุ้มครอง
detain – to keep someone in a police station or prison and not allow them to leave กักตัว ควบคุมตัวหรือฝากขัง
embassy – a group of officials who represent their government in a foreign country สถานทูต
extradition – sending someone accused of a crime back to the country where the crime was committed for trial or punishment  การส่งผู้ร้ายข้ามแดน
fraud – the crime of intentionally deceiving someone or cheating in order to gain an advantage or benefit การฉ้อโกง การหลอกลวง เล่ห์เพทุบาย
irreversible – of something that cannot be changed เปลี่ยนแปลงไม่ได้, ไม่สามารถเอาคืนกลับมาได้
issue – a subject that people discuss or argue about ประเด็น
kangaroo court – whether they have committed a crime or not ศาลเตี้ย
legitimate – allowed by the law, or correct according to the law ชอบด้วยกฎหมาย
money laundering – hiding the origin of money obtained from illegal activities by putting it into legal businesses การฟอกเงิน
motivated – done for a particular reason มีแรงจูงใจ ถูกโน้มน้าวใจ (politically-motivated – done for political reasons)
orchestrate – to plan and organise a complicated event or activity จัดการ, วางแผน
overturn – to change a situation to the opposite พลิกคว่ำ
pending – waiting to be dealt with, settled or completed อยู่ในระหว่าง
proceedings – the actions taken, usually in court, to settle a legal matter  การดำเนินการ
reject – to not agree with ปฏิเสธ ไม่ยอมรับ
release – to allow someone or something to go free ปล่อย
remand prison – a place where people are kept while they wait for the date of their trial สถานที่ขังระหว่างรอการพิจารณาคดี
row – a serious disagreement about an issue between people, organisations or countries  การทะเลาะวิวาท
show trial – a trial that a government arranges for political reasons and decides the result of before the trial begins
solitary confinement – a punishment in which a prisoner is kept alone, separate from other prisoners
suppression – stopping an activity from happening, in this case, criminal activity  การปราบปราม
tangle – something very complicated and difficult to deal with  เรื่องซับซ้อน เรื่องยุ่งเหยิง
terrorism – the use of violence to achieve political aims การใช้ความรุนแรงเพื่อข้อเรียกร้องทางการเมือง
transfer – to move someone from one place to another ย้าย
withdraw – to take away ถอน
 


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Case 4

Rakesh Saxena case heard in Criminal Court

Criminal Court – a court which hears criminal cases, i.e., cases where people are accused of breaking a law and where punishment involves possible going to jail. ศาลอาญา      

Rakesh Saxena has been accused on many crimes related to illegal banking practices during the 1990s. He was extradited from Canada to Thailand in October last year. In the first case to go to court, he has been charged with embezzling 16 billion baht from the Bangkok Bank of Commerce back in 1995. Here is some vocabulary from a recent story.


appraise – to give a judgment about how much money something might be sold for ประเมินคุณค่า
approval – official permission การอนุมัต
assets – things owned by a person, company etc., particularly money and property ทรัพย์สิน
audit –to officially examine the financial records of a company, organisation, or person to see that they are accurate สอบบัญชี
ceiling – an upper limit เพดาน ขีดจำกัด
collateral – property that you agree to give to a bank if you fail to pay back money that you have borrowed หลักทรัพย์ค้ำประกัน
collude – to act together secretly or illegally in order to deceive or cheat someone สมรู้ร่วมคิด
embezzle – to secretly take money that is in your care or that belongs to an organisation or business you work for ยักยอกเงิน, ฉ้อโกงเงิน
exceed – to be more than something; to go beyond a limit  เกินกว่าที่กำหนด
expertise - a high level of knowledge or skill ทักษะความรู้, ความคิดเห็นของผู้เชี่ยวชาญ
firm – a business or company บริษัม
loan – an amount of money that a person, business, or country borrows, especially from a bank เงินกู้
non-operational – not doing any business
submit – to formally give something to someone so that can make a decision about it ยื่น (เอกสาร) เพื่อการพิจารณา

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