Vocabulary by topic
The goal of land reform policy is to give poor farmers land but the real challenge is a policy to prevent farmers from losing this land during bad years.
One bad crop and a farmer can lose his land and livelihood to the banks and other moneylenders.
Typically, a farmer uses his land as collateral for a loan to purchase seed and farming supplies.
But if there is a drought and the revenue from the farmer's crops is not enough, the farmer may default on his loan payments and the lender may repossess his land.
Large concentrations of land often end up in the hands of wealthy landlords and plantation owners.
Land reform tries to put land back in the hands of poor farmers by taking land from wealthy individuals and the government. Some large landowners hoard large amounts of land and do not put it to effective use.
The purpose of land reform is to give families and a whole communities land they can put to good use and provide the community with a sustainable source of income in perpetuity.
Land reform puts in place safeguards so that the poor farmers who receive land do not lose it again or only derive short-term windfall profits from the land by selling it off for a huge lump sum.
Safeguards include bans on the sale of the land, on the use of the land as collateral, and also "community deeds" where the community as a whole uses and looks after the land.
Policies that help farmers get their fair share of the profits for the rice they grow is an important but difficult to achieve policy goal (See previous articles #1 (08-04-08), #2 (29-04-08) and #3 (08-05-08)).
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land reform - a government program to take the ownership of land from large land owners (the rich, the government) and give it (redistribute) to poor small farmers (See Wikipedia)
reform - a change that is intended to correct a situation that is wrong or unfair การแก้ไข การปฏิรูป
challenge - something that needs a lot of skill, energy and effort to achieve สิ่งที่ท้าทาย
livelihood - some activity such as work that provides the money you need to live การดำรงชีวิต, การครองชีพ,ทางดำรงชี
moneylender - a person or organization that loans money to people, usually at higher interest rates than banks ผู้ให้กู้ยืมเงิน
lender - someone who makes loans to other people or businesses (allows others to use their money for a period of time for a fee)
collateral - things of value that can be taken by the lender if the borrower fails to repay the loan ทรัพย์สินผูกพันตนเพื่อเอาไว้หักชำระหนี้หากไม่ชำระหนี้นั้น
drought - a period of time when there is very little rain and water available (See Wikipedia) ความแห้งแล้ง
revenue - income, money received or coming into a business, household or other organization
default - fail to pay back loan on time
loan repayments - the amount of money that a borrower pays back to the bank each month (from the loan the bank gave them)
repossess - when the bank takes back real estate (home, land, building) after borrower fails to pay back loan
concentration - a large number of things in a small place
in the hands of - owned by
look after - the process of keeping a building or piece of land in good condition, maintenance, upkeep, maintenance การบำรุงรักษา
landlord - a person who owns buildings or land that other people rent
plantation - a very large farm with many workers growing crops such as fruit, coffee or rubber สวนใหญ่
hoard - a large amount of something that a person has saved or hidden (storing it away in some place) กักตุน
X is effective - X actually works and achieves the goals it is intended to achieve
put to X to use - start using X to accomplish some task, achieve some goals
put X to effective use - using X to achieve real goals
sustainable - able to continue for a long period of time
source - where something comes from
in perpetuity - for all time in the future, forever, without end
safeguard - some action taken to protect someone from harm
put in place - set up, establish, make a system so that it is working for the first time
windfall - sudden unexpected large profits
lump sum - one payment instead of many small payments
ban - to officially say that someone is not allowed to do something ห้ามอย่างเป็นทางการ
community - local people, all the people who live in a local area or place ชุมชน
deed - a written agreement signed in a formal way, usually for the sale of real estate or a house
community deed - when a whole community owns real estate or propery (instead of an individual person, company or the government)
launch - to start something เปิดโครงการ, เริ่มต้น, เริ่มทำ
loan - an amount of money that a person, business, or country borrows, especially from a bank เงินกู้
fair share of the profits - get a percentage of the profits that is enough for the amount of work they did