Verdict day (updated)

The International Court of Justice has now ruled on a Cambodian petition demanding a Thai military withdrawal from the Preah Viharn area.

Evening update

THE HAGUE – The International Court of Justice on Monday voted 11 to 5 to order both Thailand and Cambodia to withdraw their troops from the 4.6 square kilometre disputed area around the Preah Vihear temple to reduce military confrontation along their border.

The ruling was in response to Cambodia's petition to the ICJ on April 28 for an interpretation of the 1962 verdict awarding sovereignty over the Preah Vihear temple to Cambodia.

The 1962 verdict says the ancient Hindu temple belongs to Cambodia, but the area around it has remained in dispute, causing frequent cross-border clashes between the two countries.

Today, the ICJ first unanimously rejected Thailand's request for it to drop Cambodia's petition.

The court then agreed with a vote of 11- 5 to endorse provisional measures for Thailand and Cambodia to immediately withdraw their troops from the disputed area which is to be designated a provisional demilitarised zone, and to refrain from a military presence within the zone and from armed activity directed at it.

withdraw – to take away ถอน
troops – soldiers, especially in large numbers กองทหาร
disputed area – an area claimed by two or more countries, groups or people  พื้นที่ที่เป็นกรณีพิพาท
confrontation – a situation in which people or groups are arguing angrily or are fighting การเผชิญหน้า
border – the official line separating two areas, regions or countries  เขตแดน อาณาเขต
ruling – a decision by a court of law คำตัดสิน คำชี้ขาด
response – a reaction to something that has happened or been said การตอบสนอง
petition – an official document in which you ask a court to take legal action คำร้องต่อศาล
interpretation – an explanation of the meaning or importance of something การตีความ
verdict – a decision by a court of law คำพิพากษา
sovereignty – the right to rule a country or area อำนาจอธิปไตย อำนาจเด็จขาดเหนือพื้นที่
ancient – very old ที่เก่าแก่ ที่โบราณ
frequent – happening often เกิดขึ้นบ่อย
clash – a brief fight between two or more people การปะทะกันสองฝ่าย
unanimous – agreed by everyone เป็นเอกฉันท์
reject – to not agree with a request, offer or proposal ปฏิเสธ ไม่ยอมรับ
endorse – to express support for something แสดงความเห็นชอบ
provisional – for the present time but likely to change; temporary ชั่วคราว,เฉพาะกาล
measure – an action that is intended to achieve or deal with something มาตราการ
designated – marked, separated, or give a name for a particular purpose ถูกกำหนด
demilitarised zone
– an area where military forces are not allowed to operate เขตปลอดทหาร
refrain – to stop yourself from doing something ระงับ เลิก
armed – carrying a weapon  ติดอาวุธ

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Thai hopes high over temple row

ICJ decision on troop withdrawal due today

Thanida Tansubhapol, Wassana Nanuam & Sermpong Thongsamrit

Kasit: Confident court will back Thailand

Thailand will find out this afternoon whether it will be ordered to withdraw its troops from around Preah Vihear temple, as demanded by Cambodia in the International Court of Justice.

The ICJ will hold a public hearing at the Peace Palace in The Hague at 3pm Thailand time, during which the president of the court, Judge Hisashi Owada, will read its deliberations on the issue.

The verdict will be based on the decision of the majority of its 15 judges.

Outgoing Foreign Minister Kasit Piromya is heading the Thai legal team at the hearing, while the Cambodian team will be led by Cambodian Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Hor Namhong.

Mr Kasit said the Thai team felt excited ahead of the decision and the members were hopeful that the hearing would be favourable to Thailand, as it has prepared for many years to fight the case.

"Although I am not a lawyer, I believe our arguments are reasonable under legal principles and cover all issues raised in Cambodia's request," Mr Kasit said.

"I hope our arguments will be reasonable enough for the 15 judges."

Cambodia submitted its request to the ICJ on April 28 to interpret its 1962 ruling on the case concerning Preah Vihear.

The petition was accompanied by Phnom Penh's request for provisional measures that include an immediate and unconditional withdrawal of Thai troops from areas around the temple, a ban on all Thai military activity in the area, and that Thailand refrain from any act which could interfere with Cambodian rights over the temple.

Two rounds of oral testimony on Cambodia's request for the provisional measures were held on May 30 and 31.

Thailand and Cambodia were later asked to send additional information about the situation and evacuees affected by the fighting at Ta Muen and Ta Kwai temples, which are near Preah Vihear, to the court on June 7.

Thai ambassador to the Hague Virachai Plasai and three foreign lawyers have been assigned to defend the Thai position.

A legal source said there were two criteria which the ICJ could consider when deciding provisional measures: to stop any further damage if it has already occurred; and to protect the temple from any damage that might occur.

During the oral testimony to the ICJ, Thailand argued that Bangkok and Phnom Penh had no conflict over the scope and meaning of the 1962 verdict.

Therefore, the court has no jurisdiction to interpret its three-point verdict to which Thailand had already complied since it was issued in 1962.

The three-point ruling included Thailand's acceptance that Preah Vihear temple is situated on Cambodian soil, an agreement to withdraw troops from the temple and to return antiques to Cambodia.

In principle, the court has no jurisdiction to consider the boundary issue, the source said.

Thailand and Cambodia signed a memorandum of understanding in 2000 which also covered the boundary issue.

It is not necessary for Thailand to send a letter to oppose the court's jurisdiction in interpreting its previous verdict because Thailand has opposed it all along and this position has not changed.

Foreign Ministry spokesman Thani Thongphakdi said there are three possible scenarios in the ICJ's ruling.

The ICJ might endorse Cambodia's request and order Thailand to comply with it, or the court might see it is unnecessary to issue any provisional measure because the request is outside the court's jurisdiction.

Finally, it might order provisional measures different from those which Cambodia has requested.

row – a serious disagreement about an issue between people, organisations or countries  การทะเลาะวิวาท
troops – soldiers, especially in large numbers กองทหาร
withdrawal – the act of no longer being involved in something การถอนตัว,
due – expected to happen or should happen มีกำหนด
demand – to ask for something very firmly เรียกร้อง, ต้องการ
deliberation – considering or discussing something การปรึกษาหารือ
issue – to announce something officially ออกประกาศ
verdict – a decision by a court of law คำพิพากษา
majority – more than 50 percent of a group เสียงส่วนใหญ่
judge – someone whose job is to make decisions in a court of law ตุลาการ, ผู้พิพากษา
legal – relating to the law or lawyers เกี่ยวกับกฎหมาย
deputy – a person whose rank is immediately below that of the leader of an organisation รอง
favourable – good for something and making it likely to be successful or have an advantage ซึ่งอำนวยประโยชน์
reasonable – fair, practical and sensible  มีเหตุผล
principle – a basic idea or rule that explains or controls how something happens or works ทฤษฎี, ข้อปฏิบัติ, หลักปฏิบัติ
issue – matter; a subject that people discuss or argue about  ประเด็น
submit – to formally give something to someone so that they can make a decision about it  ยื่น เสนอ (เอกสาร) ให้พิจารณา
interpret – to decide what the intended meaning of something is ตีความ
ruling – a decision by a court of law คำตัดสิน คำชี้ขาด
concerning – about  เกี่ยวกับ
petition – an official document in which you ask a court to take legal action คำร้องต่อศาล
accompany – to happen or appear with something else  มากับ, ร่วมกับ
provisional – for the present time but likely to change; temporary ชั่วคราว,เฉพาะกาล
measure – an action that is intended to achieve or deal with something มาตราการ
immediate – happening or done now, without any delay ทันทีทันใด
unconditional – without limits or requirements that something must be done อย่างไม่มีเงื่อนไข
ban – an official statement ordering people not to do, sell or use something การห้าม
refrain – to stop yourself from doing something ระงับ เลิก
interfere – to deliberately become involved in a situation and try to influence the way that it develops, although you have no right to do this  แทรกแซง
oral – spoken rather than written ที่ใช้การพูด
testimony – a formal statement about something that you say, know or experienced, usually given to a court of law คำให้การ
evacuee – a person who leaves a place of danger ผู้อพยพ
ambassador – a senior official who lives in a foreign country and represents his or her own country there เอกอัครราชทูต
assign – to give a person a particular task or position มอบหมาย, สั่งงาน
defend – to say things to support someone or something ปกป้อง
source – someone who gives information แหล่งข่าว
criteria – a standard that is used for judging something or for making a decision about something  บรรทัดฐาน
occur – to happen เกิดขึ้น
argue – to give reasons why you think that something is right/wrong, true/not true, etc, especially to persuade people that you are right ห้เหตุผล, อ้างเหตุผล
conflict – an angry disagreement between people or groups ความขัดแย้ง
scope – the things that a particular activity, organisation, subject, etc deals with ขอบเขต
jurisdiction – a country or area in which a particular legal system operates ขอบเขตอำนาจที่ศาลและกฏหมายควบคุมไปถึง
comply – to obey a rule or law or do what someone asks you to do  ปฏิบัติตามกฎหมาย
situated – located ตั้งอยู่ที่
soil – land owned by a country พื้นดิน
antiques –old and valuable things that are usually looked at but not used โบราณวัตถุ, ของโบราณ
in principle – in general terms without knowing the details or whether something is really possible โดยหลัก
boundary – a real or imagined line that marks the edge or limit of something  เขตแดน,เส้นแบ่งเขต
memorandum of understanding (MOU) – a document used to describe a form of a written agreement between two or more groups, countries, etc. The document is not as strong as a contract but outlines a commitment between the two to work together toward the same purpose or goals
oppose – to disagree with or not approve of a plan or policy คัดค้าน
scenario – a description of possible actions or events in the future การสมมติสภาพที่เลวร้ายที่เป็นไปได้
endorse – to express support for something แสดงความเห็นชอบ

Related search: International court of Justice; Preah Viharn; Kasit Pirom

About the author

Writer: Terry Fredrickson
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