Myanmar vote count continues (Updated Monday)

Myanmar vote count continues (Updated Monday)

Supporters of Myanmar opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi's party cheer as they watch a polling station count on a giant screen outside the party headquarters in Yangon on November 8, 2015. AFP PHOTO / Ye Min Aung
Supporters of Myanmar opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi's party cheer as they watch a polling station count on a giant screen outside the party headquarters in Yangon on November 8, 2015. AFP PHOTO / Ye Min Aung

The vote count continues in Myanmar. Aung San Suu Kyi's supporters believe her party has won as much as 70 percent of the parliamentary seats, but only 12 seats have thus far been officially declared, all for her NLD party.

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Monday evening

As you read all those stories about an NLD (National League for Democracy), keep in mind that the election commission has only declared 12 seats officially. Thus, tomorrow should be a big news day one way or another.

Monday afternoon

NLD leaders are saying they expect to win 70 percent of the vote, but the first results are now scheduled to be announced at 4pm, according to the Election Commission. Pro-military party leaders now admit they expect the NLD to win the most votes. (15:55; The BBC's Jonathan Head has just reported that the first 12 lower house seats to be announced have gone to the NLD.)

Monday morning update

The vote count is continuing this Monday morning, but there are very few reports of actual results yet. (The BBC's Jonah Fisher has just reported that the Election Commission has postponed reporting any results until this afternoon. His colleague, Jonathan Head, says it is "inconceivable" that the NLD has not won the most seats in parliament, but it is not clear if that will be enough to form the next government) Aung San Suu Kyi's supporters believe her National League for Democracy (NLD) party has won, but analysts point out that the party will need a landslide to take power, since 25 percent of the seats in parliament are reserved for military appointees. (Jonah Fisher's colleague, Jonathan Head, says it is "inconceivable" that the NLD has not won the most seats in parliament, but it is not clear if that will be enough to form the next government.)

AFP reports that Aung San Suu Kyi did not address the crowd outside the party's Yangon headquarters last night.

Myanmar opposition leader and head of the National League for Democracy (NLD) Aung San Suu Kyi casts her vote at a polling station in Yangon on November 8, 2015. AFP PHOTO / HEIN HTET

Instead, reports AFP, NLD official Tin Oo read a message from the party's leader.

"I urge you to wait for the result from your own homes," he said, adding: "When the result comes out, I want you to accept it calmly."

In the capital Naypyidaw, President Thein Sein, had a similar message.

After casting his vote in the capital, Myanmar's powerful army chief said his troops would respect the voice of the electorate, AFP reported

"Just as the winner accepts the result, so should the loser," Min Aung Hlaing told reporters.

Sunday evening

Election commission staff members draw out the votes as local observers look on at a polling station in Yangon on November 8, 2015. The historic poll could see Suu Kyi's opposition launched to power after decades of army rule. AFP PHOTO / Ye Aung THU

Counting has begun after what appears to have been a smooth and largely free and fair election in Myanmar with a very high turnout. Don't expect the final results to be quick, however, and there may be no clear-cut winner although Aung San Suu Kyi's supporters are very optimistic. Myanmar is a big and diverse country and it will not be easy for her NLD to win the two-thirds majority of the vote to be the outright winner.

Here is an early evening report from AFP

Yangon, Nov 8, 2015 AFP – Millions voted Sunday in Myanmar's historic election after a massive turnout that could catapult Aung San Suu Kyi's pro-democracy party into power and finally end decades of military control.

After a day marked by euphoric lines of voters – and a rock star welcome for Suu Kyi as she voted – the count began after polling stations shut at 4pm local time (0930 GMT).

Early indications were of an "80 percent" turnout, according to Union Election Commission deputy director Thant Zin Aung -- a figure the opposition will hope favours their bid for a majority.

More than 30 million people were eligible to vote in Myanmar's freest election for a generation.

Sunday afternoon

Here's more from AFP in Yangon

16:40

Poll officials display a ballot marked for a candidate of Myanmar opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD) party a polling center located inside a military camp in Yangon on November 8, 2015.

Voting in Myanmar's landmark general election closed on Sunday afternoon after a massive turnout, an election official told AFP.

Polling stations across the country were closed at 4pm local time (0930 GMT), Union Election Commission deputy director Thant Zin Aung said, adding early indications were that "around 80 percent of voters turned out today."

15:00

The early queues, which were seen across the country – from the mountainous north to the flat southern delta – pointed to a strong turnout, something observers say will likely benefit the National League for Democracy Party (NLD) as it hunts a decisive poll victory.

It needs to take just over two thirds of the contested seats to win a clear majority.

The ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) needs just a third for a possible tie-up with the army, which already has a quarter of all seats guaranteed under the constitution.

Fears of election day chaos in a country which last held a fully contested poll 25 years ago appeared not to have played out – at least in Yangon.

Sunday morning

9:45  Aung San Suu Kyi votes

Myanmar opposition leader and head of the National League for Democracy (NLD) Aung San Suu Kyi leaves her house to cast her vote at a polling station in Yangon on November 8, 2015. AFP PHOTO / Nicolas ASFOURI

Opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi cast her vote Sunday in Myanmar's election, in a landmark poll she hopes will see her National League for Democracy Party win a majority.

Suu Kyi, wearing a red top and flowers in her hair, was mobbed by scores of journalists, while Myanmar voters shouted "victory, victory" as she was ushered from her car into the polling station.

Voting begins in Myanmar

A Myanmar voter displays her inked finger after casting her ballot at a polling center in Yangon on November 8, 2015. AFP PHOTO / ROMEO GACAD

Yangon, Nov 8, 2015 AFP – Myanmar began voting Sunday in a historic election that could thrust Aung San Suu Kyi's pro-democracy party into power and finally pull the country away from the grip of the military.

Queues of people, many wearing traditional longyi sarongs, built up before daybreak at polling stations across Yangon in a sign of the enthusiasm that has accompanied the milestone poll, hoped to be Myanmar's fairest for a generation.

"All polling stations around the country opened at 6am (2330 GMT) at the same time," Ko Ko, an election commission official, told AFP.

Some 30 million people are eligible to vote, in an event that has posed major logistical challenges across a vast and poor country.

Myanmar voter Chan Myae Thu, 27, a nine months old pregnant woman queues at a polling centre in Hlaing Thayar, Yangon. AFP PHOTO / Phyo Hein Kyaw

Polls will close in the late afternoon with official results expected to start trickling out by early Monday.

Saturday's story

Myanmar opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi gestures towards supporters as she travels in a motorcade ahead of a campaign rally for the National League for Democracy in Yangon on November 1, 2015. Myanmar heads to the polls on November 8 in what observers and voters hope will be the fairest election in decades as the nation slowly shakes off years of brutal and isolating junta rule. AFP PHOTO / Ye Aung THU

Suu Kyi eyes historic win in Myanmar elections

Nov 6, 2015, AFP – Myanmar's boisterous election campaign drew to a close Friday, two days before milestone polls that could finally propel Aung San Suu Kyi's pro-democracy party to power after a decades-long struggle against the military.

Myanmarese poll observers (R) from the National League for Democracy (NLD) make checks at a polling centre in Yangon on November 6, 2015. The once junta-run nation heads to the polls on November 8 in what voters and observers hope will be the freest election in decades. While NLD party is expected to triumph at key elections this year, Myanmar opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi's pathway to the presidency is blocked by a controversial clause in Myanmar's junta-era constitution. AFP PHOTO / ROMEO GACAD

Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD) is eyeing an outright majority at Sunday's general election, the first the party has contested since 1990.

Myanmar was ruled for half a century by a brutal and isolationist junta that crushed pro-democracy movements through a combination of violent crackdowns and political chicanery.

Myanmar President Thein Sein has vowed that his party and the army will respect the outcome of Sunday's election. AFP PHOTO / YE AUNG THU

But in 2011 the military unexpectedly ceded power to a quasi-civilian government led by former top-ranking general President Thein Sein.

The wave of reforms that followed loosened the military chokehold on the nation.

A free press has flourished since, most political prisoners have been released and the economy is creeping back to life in lockstep with the rollback of most international sanctions.

But the ruling, army-backed Union and Solidarity Development Party (USDP) is the main obstacle to a historic NLD win.

Late Friday Thein Sein, who has pegged the election as the centrepiece of reforms, used a broadcast on state television to reassure the electorate that the outcome of the poll will not be disputed.

"The government and Tatmadaw (army) will respect the results of the free and fair election," he said.

Suu Kyi's supporters remained buoyant.

"Mother Suu" has received a rock star welcome by waves of red-clad supporters as she campaigned across the country.

Detractors say her reputation as a human rights icon has diminished in recent years, as she has often chosen hard pragmatism over the steely idealism of her house arrest years.

But the 70-year-old is still revered by the nation's pro-democracy camp and garlanded by the international community for her long, selfless struggle.

Suu Kyi is barred from the presidency by an army-scripted constitution, but says she will nevertheless run the government if her party wins.

Aung San Suu Kyi speaks at a press conference from her residential compound in Yangon on November 5, 2015, ahead of the landmark November 8 elections. Myanmar's democracy heroine Aung San Suu Kyi on November 5 vowed to run the government if her opposition party wins this Sunday's landmark election, despite being barred from the presidency. AFP PHOTO / ROMEO GACAD

A win for the NLD will represent "a great leap into democracy," she said in her final press conference on Thursday.

With the constitution reserving 25 percent of all parliamentary seats for military appointees, the NLD must take 67 percent of all contested seats in order to claim a majority.

In an election with 91 parties competing, including across restive ethnic areas, its victory is far from assured and the NLD has been burned before by army dirty tricks.

Suu Kyi has raised concerns that poll fraud and voting irregularities are already marring voting in some areas.

She has also set herself on a collision course with the military, declaring an NLD majority would see her take a role "above the president", irrespective of the charter.

That document bars anyone with foreign children or spouse from the top office – Suu Kyi's two sons are British passport holders as was her late husband, who died while she was under house arrest.

Election authorities are expected to release unofficial results within 48 hours of the polls closing. The NLD will also mark its own scorecard.

Whoever wins, the new government will not take its place in parliament until February.

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Vocabulary

  • address: to speak publicly to a group of people - กล่าวปราศรัย
  • admit: to agree that something is true, especially when you are unhappy, sorry or surprised about it - ยอมรับ
  • analyst: a person whose job involves examining facts or materials in order to give an opinion on them - นักวิเคราะห์
  • appear: to seem - ดูเหมือนจะ, ดูเหมือนว่า
  • appointee: a person who is appointed to a position or job -
  • assured: made certain - ทำให้แน่ใจ
  • authority (noun): a person or government agency who has the power to make decisions or enforce the law - เจ้าหน้าที่ผู้มีอำนาจ
  • back: to support - ให้การสนับสนุน
  • ballot: the piece of paper on which someone marks who they are voting for - บัตรเลือกตั้ง
  • bar: to officially not allow someone to do something or go somewhere - ห้าม
  • barred (verb): officially prevented from doing something - ถูกห้าม
  • benefit: to give an advantage to someone - มีประโยชน์ต่อ
  • bid: an attempt to do something - ความพยายาม 
  • block: to stop something from being done or from succeeding - ปิด, กีดขวาง
  • boisterous (adj): noisy and full of life and energy - เอะอะ, พลุกพล่าน
  • broadcast: a programme that can be seen or heard on television or radio - แพร่ภาพกระจายเสียง
  • brutal: extremely violent and unpleasant - โหดร้าย
  • buoyant (adj): cheerful and feeling sure that things will be successful - ร่าเริง, โดยคาดหวังสิ่งที่ดี
  • burned (verb): damaged; angered -
  • calmly: in a relaxed way without anxiety - อย่างใจเย็น, อย่างไม่ตื่นเต้น, อย่างสงบ
  • camp: a group of people who have the same ideas about something and oppose people with other ideas -
  • campaign (noun): a planned series of activities designed to persuade voters to vote for a particular candidate or political party - การรณรงค์หาเสียง
  • campaign: to take part in a planned series of activities (a campaign) designed to persuade voters to vote for a particular candidate or political party - รณรงค์หาเสียง
  • capital: the most important town or city of a country, usually where the central government operates from - เมืองหลวง
  • cast a ballot: to vote, i.e., to put a marked ballot in a ballot box - ลงคะแนน, หย่อนบัตรเลือกตั้ง, ออกเสียงเลือกตั้ง
  • catapult (verb): to send flying through the air -
  • cede: to allow someone to take something away from you - ยกให้
  • centrepiece (noun): the most important item or thing - สิ่งที่สำคัญที่สุด
  • century: a period of one hundred years - ศตวรรษ
  • challenge: something that needs a lot of skill, energy, and determination to deal with or achieve - สิ่งที่ท้าทาย, การท้าทาย
  • chaos: a situation in which everything is confused and in a mess - การจราจล
  • charter: a constitution - รัฐธรรมนูญ
  • chicanery (noun): the use of complicated plans and clever talk in order to trick people - การใช้กลลวง, เล่ห์กล,เล่ห์เพทุบาย,กลอุบาย
  • chokehold (noun): a tight grip around a person's neck, making it difficult to breathe - การจับซึ่งทำให้หายใจไม่ออก
  • civilian: of someone who does not belong to the armed forces or the police - พลเรือน
  • clad: dressed or covered - สวมใส่
  • claim: to demand or ask for something because you believe it is your legal right to own or to have it - อ้างสิทธิ, ยืนยัน
  • clause: an item in a legal document that says that a particular thing must or must not be done - มาตรา
  • clear-cut: clear, simple and easy to understand -
  • colleague (noun): someone who works in the same organisation or department as you do or someone you know who has the same type of job - เพื่อนร่วมงาน
  • collision course (idiom): the path an object is moving that will cause it to collide with another object - เส้นทางที่จะทำให้เกิดการชนกัน
  • combination (noun): the mixture you get when two or more things are combined - การรวมกัน
  • community: a group of people who share the same job, interests, religion, etc - สังคม
  • compound: an area enclosed by a fence or wall, usually in which people work or live - บริเวณ
  • concerns: worries - ความกังวล
  • constitution: the set of laws and basic principles that a country in governed by - รัฐธรรมนูญ
  • contest: to compete for something - แข่งขัน
  • contested (adj): in a competition, e.g. an election, etc. - การเลือกตั้งที่มีการคัดค้าน
  • controversial: causing disagreement or disapproval - ซึ่งก่อให้เกิดการโต้แย้ง
  • crackdown: strong action that someone in authority takes to stop a particular activity - การใช้กำลังสลายผู้ประท้วง
  • creep: to move or develop very slowly - เคลื่อนที่อย่างช้าๆ
  • crush: to completely defeat someone who is opposing you - ทำลาย
  • daybreak: the time of day when light first appears - ฟ้าสาง, รุ่งสาง, รุ่งอรุณ, เช้ามืด
  • decades: periods of ten years - เป็นสิบๆปี
  • decisive: making the final result of a situation completely certain   - ซึ่งมีลักษณะชี้ขาด,แน่วแน่,ซึ่งตัดสินใจแล้ว
  • declare: to announce officially - ประกาศ
  • delta: an area of land, shaped like a triangle, where a river has split into several smaller rivers before entering the sea - พื้นที่สามเหลี่ยมปากแม่น้ำ, อ่าวเล็กๆ ปากแม่น้ำ
  • detractor: someone who criticises something or someone, often unfairly - ผู้กล่าวร้าย
  • development: the gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced, stronger, etc - การพัฒนา
  • diminish: to gradually become less - ลดลง, อ่อนแรง
  • dirty (adj): dishonest or unfair - สกปรก, ไม่ซื่อสัตย์
  • dispute: to say that something such as a fact is not true or correct - โต้แย้ง
  • diverse (adj): including people from many different backgrounds; very different from each other - หลากหลาย
  • document: a paper or set of papers with written or printed information, especially of an official type  - เอกสาร
  • economy: the relationship between production, trade and the supply of money in a particular country or region - เศรษฐกิจ
  • Election Commission: the independent government agency that oversees elections - คณะกรรมการเลือกตั้ง
  • electorate: all the people in a country or area who are allowed to vote - ผู้ที่มีสิทธิเลือกตั้งทั้งหมดในท้องที่หรือเขตหนึ่งๆ
  • eligible: allowed by rules or laws to do something or to receive something - มีสิทธิชอบธรรมตามกฎหมาย  เอื้อด้วยกฎหมาย
  • enthusiasm: the feeling of being very interested in something or excited by it - ความกระตือรือร้น
  • era: a period of time that has a particular quality or character - ยุค, สมัย
  • ethnic: of a group of people with the same culture or traditions - กลุ่มชาติพันธุ์
  • euphoric: feeling extremely happy, usually for a short time only - ปลาบปลื้ม, มีความสุขที่สุด
  • eye (verb): to consider carefully; to look at someone or something carefully - พิจารณา, มองดู
  • figure: a number representing a particular amount, especially one given in official information - ตัวเลข, จำนวนเลข
  • flourish: to grow or develop successfully - เจริญรุ่งเรือง
  • former: of or in an earlier time; before the present time or in the past - อดีต, แต่ก่อน
  • fraud: something (or someone) that deceives people by not being what it seems to be; bogus - ไม่แท้ การโกง การหลอกลวง
  • garland: a circle made of flowers worn around the neck or head as a decoration - พวงมาลัย
  • general (noun): an officer of very high rank in the army, the air force, the marines or the police - พลเอก, นายพล
  • general election (noun): an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen. The term is usually used to refer to elections held for a nation's primary legislative body, as distinguished from by-elections and local elections (Source: Wikipedia) - การเลือกตั้งทั่วไป
  • generation: a group of people in society who are born and live around the same time - รุ่น (คนรุ่นต่างๆ)
  • grip (noun): an act of holding somebody/something tightly; a particular way of doing this - การยึดเกาะ, การฉวย, การจับ, การกำ
  • guaranteed: certain - แน่นอน, รับรอง
  • headquarters: the place where an organisation or company has its main offices - สำนักงานใหญ่ กองบัญชาการ
  • heroine: a hero who is a woman; a person admired by many people for doing something brave or good - วีรบุรุษ
  • historic: of historical importance - ที่สำคัญในประวัติศาสตร์
  • house arrest: legally forced to stay in your house as if it were a prison - การกักกันผู้ต้องหาไว้ในที่อยู่ของเขา
  • human rights: the basic rights which it is generally considered all people should have, such as justice and the freedom to say what you think - สิทธิมนุษยชน
  • icon: someone who is very famous and who people think represents a particular idea - ดาราหรือบุคคลผู้มีชื่อเสียงที่เป็นตัวแทนของสิ่งใดสิ่งหนึ่ง
  • idealism (noun): the belief that a perfect life, situation, etc. can be achieved, even when this is not very likely - อุดมคตินิยม, ความเชื่อในอุดมคติ
  • inconceivable (adj): impossible to imagine or believe - ซึ่งเหลือเชื่อ, ซึ่งยากเกินกว่าจะเข้าใจได้
  • indication: a sign that something happened, is true or exists - เครื่องบ่งชี้
  • irregularity: a situation in which the rules, laws, or usual ways of doing things have not been followed - การปฏิบัติที่ไม่เป็นไปตามระเบียบปกติ
  • irrespective of (prep): without considering something or being influenced by it - โดยไม่คำนึงถึง
  • isolate: to set apart from; to disconnect from - แยกออกมา ตั้งอยู่เดี่ยวๆ
  • isolationist (adj): connected with the policy of not becoming involved in the affairs of other countries or groups - เกี่ยวกับการอยู่โดดเดี่ยว
  • journalist: a person who writes news stories or articles for a newspaper or magazine or broadcasts them on radio or television - ผู้สื่อข่าว
  • junta: a group of military officers that governs a country, usually without having been elected - รัฐบาลทหาร
  • key: very important - ที่สำคัญ
  • landmark: a major event or achievement that marks an important state in a process and makes progress possible - เหตุการณ์ที่เป็นการแสดงถึงความคืบหน้า
  • landslide: a situation in which a person or political party wins an election by a very large margin - ถล่มทลาย
  • late: dead - ที่ล่วงลับไปแล้ว
  • leap: a large jump; a major achievement that has been done before - การกระโดด
  • lockstep (noun): a situation where things happen at the same time or change at the same rate - อย่างเชื่อมโยงกัน
  • logistical (adj): involving the practical organisation that is needed to make a complicated plan successful when a lot of people and equipment is involved - เกี่ยวกับการส่งกำลังบำรุง, เกี่ยวกับระบบโลจิสติกส์
  • loosen (verb): to make something weaker or less controlled than before; to make something less tight or firmly fixed; to become less tight or firmly fixed - ทำให้คลายลง; ผ่อนออก; ลดหย่อน, ผ่อนคลาย; ทำให้หลวม
  • majority: more than 50 percent of a group - เสียงส่วนใหญ่
  • mar: to spoil something - ทำให้เสียหาย
  • massive: very large - จำนวนมาก
  • milestone: an event or achievement that marks an important stage in a process - เหตุการณ์สำคัญ (ที่ควรบันทึกไว้)
  • mob: to gather round someone in order to see them and try and get their attention - รุมล้อม
  • movement (noun): a group of people who share the same aim and work together to achieve it - การเคลื่อนไหวเพื่อวัตถุประสงค์ทางการเมือง
  • nevertheless: despite what has just been said or referred to - แต่อย่างไรก็ตาม
  • observer: a person who watches and analyses a situation - ผู้สังเกตการณ์
  • obstacle: a difficulty or problem that prevents you from achieving something; a hurdle - อุปสรรค ขวากหนาม
  • office (noun): a position in a large and powerful organization, especially a government - ตำแหน่ง, ,ภาระหน้าที่
  • opposition: of a political party that is not part of the government or a group which is against the government - ฝ่ายค้าน  ผู้ต่อต้าน
  • optimistic: expecting good things to happen or to be successful - โดยคาดหวังสิ่งที่ดี
  • outcome: a result - ผล
  • outcome: the results of an election - ผลการเลือกตั้ง
  • outright: complete and total - ขาด, ทั้งหมด,สิ้นเชิง
  • pathway (noun): a way or track that is built or is made by the action of people walking - ทาง, ทางเดิน, เส้นทาง
  • peg (verb): to think of somebody/something in a particular way - เข้าใจ
  • poll (noun): an election - การเลือกตั้ง
  • polling centre (noun): the place where people vote in an election - หน่วยเลือกตั้ง
  • polling station: the place where people vote in an election - หน่วยเลือกตั้ง
  • polls (noun): an election - การเลือกตั้ง
  • pose: cause something, especially a problem or difficulty - เป็นเหตุให้
  • power (noun): political control of a country or an area; having a lot of influence and authority to control people and situations - อำนาจ
  • pragmatism (noun): thinking about solving problems in a practical and sensible way rather than by having fixed ideas and theories - ปฏิบัตินิยม, วิธีคิดที่อิงกับผลที่เกิดจริงมากกว่าตามทฤษฎี
  • pregnant: having a baby developing inside the body - ท้อง ตั้งครรภ์
  • presidency (noun): the job of being president of a country or an organization; the period of time somebody holds this job - ตำแหน่งประธานาธิบดี
  • press: newspapers and magazines, and those parts of television and radio which broadcast news, or reporters and photographers who work for them - สื่อมวลชน
  • press conference: an official meeting where someone makes a formal statement about a particular issue or event to journalists and answers their questions about it - การแถลงข่าว
  • propel: to move or push someone or something forward - ขับเคลื่อน, ขับดัน
  • quarter: one of four equal parts of something; 25 percent - หนึ่งในสี่ส่วน
  • quasi-: partly; almost; that appears to be something but is not really so - ดูเหมือน, คล้ายคลึง
  • queue: a line of people waiting for something - คิว
  • raise: to bring up a subject for discussion - ยกขึ้นมาเป็นประเด็น
  • rally: a large public gathering of people to support someone or to protest against something - การชุมนุม
  • reassure: to make someone feel less worried about something - ให้ความมั่นใน
  • reform: a change that is intended to correct a situation that is wrong or unfair - การแก้ไข การปฏิรูป
  • release: to allow someone or something to go free - ปล่อย
  • reporter: someone whose job is to write articles or make broadcasts about events in the news - ผู้สื่อข่าว, นักข่าว
  • reputation: the opinion people have about how good or bad someone or something is - ชื่อเสียง
  • reserve: to keep something currently not being used but that can be used when needed - สำรองไว้
  • residential: of a place where people live -
  • respect: to accept the importance of something; to act according to a rule or law - เคารพ
  • restive: (of a group of people) impatient or becoming difficult to control because they are dissatisfied - วุ่นวาย ไม่สงบ ควบคุมยาก ดื้อรั้น หัวแข็ง
  • revered: highly respected and admired - ซึ่งแสดงความเคารพนับถือ
  • role: the position or purpose that someone or something has in a situation, organisation, society or relationship - บทบาท
  • rollback (noun): the act of changing a situation, law, etc. back to what it was before - การกลับไปสู่สถานการณ์ก่อนหน้านี้
  • rule: to have control over a particular group, country, etc - มีอำนาจ, ปกครอง
  • ruling: having control over a particular group, country, etc - ซึ่งมีอำนาจ, ซึ่งปกครอง
  • sanction: an official order, such as the stopping of trade, which is taken against a country in order to make it obey international law - การคว่ำบาตร
  • sarong: a long piece of thin cloth which is worn wrapped around the waist - โสร่ง
  • scores: large numbers of - จำนวนมาก
  • scripted (adj): written or planned before and therefore not natural - เป็นบทละคร
  • selfless (adj): thinking more about the needs, happiness, etc. of other people than about your own - ซึ่งไม่เห็นแก่ตัว, ซึ่งคำนึงถึงผู้อื่นก่อน
  • similar: like somebody/something but not exactly the same - คล้ายกัน
  • solidarity: agreement between and support for the members of a group - ความเป็นน้ำหนึ่งใจเดียว ความสามัคคี
  • spouse: husband or wife - คู่สมรส
  • state: government - รัฐบาล
  • steely (adj): (of a person’s character or behaviour) strong, hard and unfriendly - แข็ง,บึกบึน,เหมือนเหล็กกล้า
  • struggle: a very difficult task that you can do only by making a great effort - ความพยายาม
  • the military (noun): soldiers; the armed forces - ทหาร, กองกำลัง, กองทัพ
  • thrust (verb): to push something with strength and force - ผลัก, ดัน, ยัน, แทง
  • traditional: things (buildings, clothes, music, customs, etc.) that have been part of a country or society for a long time - แบบดั้งเดิม, เป็นประเพณี
  • trick: something that you do to make somebody believe something which is not true - การหลอกลวง, การเล่นกล
  • trickle (verb): to flow, or to make something flow, slowly in a thin stream - ไหลเป็นหยด
  • triumph (verb): to win a great victory or success - ชัยชนะ
  • troops: soldiers, especially in large numbers - กองทหาร
  • turnout: the number or percentage of eligible voters who vote in an election - จำนวนผู้ออกมาลงคะแนน
  • unexpectedly (adv.): in a surprising way because you were not expecting it - อย่างไม่คาดฝัน, อย่างน่าประหลาดใจ
  • unofficial: not formally approved by anyone in authority - ไม่เป็นทางการ
  • urge: to advise someone very strongly about what action or attitude they should take - ผลักดัน, กระตุ้น
  • usher (verb): to take or show somebody where they should go - นำทาง
  • victory: winning a competition or a battle - ชัยชนะ
  • violent (adj): involving the use of physical force, with the intention of causing damage to property or injury or death to people - รุนแรง
  • vow: to make a formal and serious promise to do something or to promise what you say is true - สาบาน, ปฏิญาณ
  • wave: a large number of people moving or arriving somewhere at the same time - คนกลุ่มใหญ่ที่กำลังมุ่งหน้าไปยัง
  • wave: an activity or situation which is happening again or is being repeated after a pause -
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