Angel dolls: Sacred or superstition?

Angel dolls: Sacred or superstition?

Angel dolls undergo special rituals to have a spirit channeled into them and this includes magical symbols being inscribed on them by a monk.
Angel dolls undergo special rituals to have a spirit channeled into them and this includes magical symbols being inscribed on them by a monk.

Angel dolls ease fears & bring peace-of-mind say some monks. Doll owner fantasy world wasteful of money poor children could use, say others.


Angel dolls: Sacred or superstition?


Dog and doll share a snack (Source: Facebook of Jirapat Rodbunjob)

Luk thep angel child dolls, or just "angel dolls" for short, are believed by their owners to possess supernatural powers gained through blessings and incantations.

Angel dolls are believed to bring good luck to their owners, also known as the doll's "parents".

The lifelike dolls are dressed like children in beautiful clothes and lovely hairdos.

Their parents make sure they are good parents and go out of their way to make sure that their stuffed children are coddled and cosseted. 

From dressing the dolls up to securing seats in restaurants and airplanes, large amounts of money are spent on the dolls as people would spend on their flesh and blood children or perhaps on a treasured poodle.


The Prime Minister, however, remains a bit sceptical.

On Monday, Prime Minister General Prayut Chan-o-cha weighed in on the current national doll obsession and debate

"It's something that society should decide if it's real or not," said Gen Prayut. "It's a belief. But I don't know whether it's a sustainable one."


It has been a frenzied week for the dolls, their parents, and observers in the general non-doll owning public.

Though the phenomenon of the angel doll took off last year, last week after airlines gave permission to purchase seats for dolls, scores of restaurants and hospitality businesses followed suit and promoted themselves as angel doll-friendly. 

Tutorial schools and nurseries even began offering private sessions for those owners seeking to invest in their doll's education and future.
On Monday, a monk in Nonthaburi was photographed while performing a mass blessing of the dolls, sprinkling them with holy water and allegedly putting sacred spirits in them.

Feeding the dolls, teaching the dolls, treating the dolls as children -- some say it is just a new belief on par with other beliefs that people have, others see something more sinister, a sign of psychological despair that perhaps indicates mental health issues that need to be dealt with urgently.

Anti-economic crime police seized more than 100 luk thep at various Bangkok locations for alleged tax evasion after vendors were unable to produce custom tax papers. According to police, the dolls were imported from China. (Photo by Apichart Jinakul)


The National Office of Buddhism, meanwhile, is looking into reports that several Buddhist temples and monks are performing doll rituals. Critics warn the practice might not be in line with the monastic code of conduct (Patimokkha) (see here).

Somkiat Thongsri, director of the Supreme Sangha Council's Secretariat Office, said he has ordered provincial Buddhism offices to investigate a number of reports about monks performing rituals on dolls and to find out whether this violates the monastic code of conduct. Mr Somkiat also called on Buddhists to be aware of what Buddhism actually is.

Buddhist temples performing angel doll rituals are also reportedly under police surveillance.


Temples perform blessings and incantations for the dolls which are as known as the Plook Sek ritual

One of the monks performing the popular rituals is Phra Ajarn Vinai Thitapanyo of Wat Bua Kwan temple in Nonthaburi province.

Spending 5-10 minutes on each doll, the monk writes on each doll the magical symbols one commonly sees on angel dolls. The temple is usually crowded with eager doll owners every day especially on weekends some bringing many dolls to be blessed in the ritual.

Magical symbols inscribed on a doll along with gold leaf and bracelets.

During the rite the angels are believed to move into the doll, a guardian angel who will ensure the owner good luck ("the spirit was channeled into the doll" is another way to say it in English).

The phrases "spirit possession" or "the doll was possessed by the spirit" may not really be appropriate. "Spirit possession" usually means "evil spirit possession" making "exorcism" rituals to drive the evil spirit away an urgent necessity.

One doll owner has, in fact, already conceived of such a duel between a "Chucky" doll possessed by an evil spirit and an angel doll possessed by a good spirit (see here & here):

Duel between good angel doll and evil Chucky doll (Source: Facebook).


Phra Vinai Tidpanyo performs a rite to instill powers in angel child dolls at Wat Bua Kwan Phra Aram Luang in Nonthaburi. The monk spends 5-10 minutes placing magical geometric shapes on the front and back of the dolls. But while doing this the monk also tells the owners not to be so gullible and only do good deeds. (Photo by Tawatchai Kemgumnerd)

How do monks performing the rituals justify angel doll rituals?

The monk Phra Ajarn Vinai told Thai Rath newspaper that he cannot stop people from believing in the supernatural powers of the dolls, so it is best to put this to good use.

After the dolls are blessed the owners feel happy, so happiness is one reason for the rituals.

However, he warns the doll owners must also show wisdom (panya) and not be stupid .
A spokesman for the National Office of Buddhism says a good monk cannot rightly refuse to bless the dolls.

The Plook Sek doll blessing ritual is no different from blessing an automobile or the many other rituals that monks routinely perform.

Doll rituals ease the fears of faithful Buddhist doll owners and provide them with peace-of-mind.

Furthermore, these rituals are not being carried out as a business (there is "no commercial intent") and this makes them acceptable to Buddhist teachings.

"If the ritual was performed in order to receive commercial gain or if the people were directly asked to make more donations then this is improper. That is what is known among devout monks as ‘Deracharn Wicha’ or ‘Corruption of Knowledge’ and is not supported by the Sangha Buddhist Supreme Council."

So officially, at least for now, doll blessing ceremonies are permitted.


Phra Payom Kalayano of Wat Suan Kaew, Nonthaburi lashed out at raising angel dolls as if they are children as un-Buddhist superstitious behaviour, likening the angel doll craze to the Jatukam amulet fad years ago.

There are monks critical of the practice of raising angel dolls as if they are children.

The senior monk Phra Payom Kalayano of Wat Suan Kaew, interviewed by channel 3 on Tuesday, lashed out at raising angel dolls as if they are children, as un-Buddhist superstitious behaviour.

The monk likened the angel doll craze to the Jatukam amulet fad which has now completely disappeared after reaching great heights of popularity.

The critical monk suggested donating angel dolls to the government to help them magically export the surplus rubber they are buying at above market prices which would be of great service to poor rubber growers and the nation.

Many dismiss the dolls as driving people even deeper into superstition.

Monks should teach doll owners the words of the Lord Buddha to make their lives more useful to society, their family and friends, in short, to rescue them from their fantasy world and bring them back to the real world, some who are critical of the dolls say.    

Others have suggested tongue-in-cheek that if there was ever a revolution, angel doll owners would be the first to face the firing squad, perhaps because they waste money that would be better spent on raising poor children and providing them with an education. 

What remains more mystifying is where the dolls actually come from.

Many people claim to be the originator of angel child dolls.

One of those is 49-year-old Mananya Boonme (see video below), who has worked as a fortune-teller and a spiritual medium for more than a decade and says she used a doll which she named "Nong Petch" and treated it as if she was her own daughter, as a tool to keep her headstrong son disciplined.


"I started by giving her a shower," Mananya said. "Then one day she appeared in my dream and told me she was going to help me earn money.

I took her to ride a carousel at a theme park, then she was seen and asked to be on a television programme. After that, more and more television programmes came to us."

Before long, Mananya was approached by a number of faithful followers whom she refers to as her "students".

With word of mouth, what started off as a rather small group turned into a popular and flourishing business.

Now, her house in Nonthaburi has been transformed into a showroom and factory filled with hundreds of dolls, welcoming people who come from all over the country.

The price for dolls ranges from 1,999 baht to 30,000 baht, rituals included.

The first step is for customers to select a style of doll, all of which are stuffed with "special objects" instead of grain, as she had to quit using grain after it became overly imitated.

The most important part takes place upstairs. Details of which, however, Mananya is unable to share, as this is what her makes her angel dolls different from others.

"I make them with my mind," Mananya said. "They come from my imagination. Whether or not a doll is special is entirely up to the person who makes it."


One of the celebrities claiming to have become a "parent" of a doll after Mananya performed her magic is Thanachapan "Bookko" Buranacheewawilai, a well-known DJ.

He performed a test on his doll, vowing that he would believe in the power of the doll if it gave him good luck and helped him ace his job interview and get a job.

He got the job.

Not convinced, he tried it again and again and each time he got the job.

"At first I thought it was a coincidence," he said. "But I tried it a few times, and when it kept happening, I believed it was the doll."


Some compare angel dolls with the ancient and more eerie looking, kuman thong or "ghost child" dolls blessed by shamans or sorcerers that have supernatural powers also.

While kuman thong dolls are associated with rural beliefs and ancient mysticism, angel dolls are thoroughly modern, urban and middle-class in nature.

"Kuman thong is blessed by black magic, and some houses do that to luk thep too," says one doll business owner at "But it's wrong. Luk thep are fed by good deeds."

"Those who keep them have to make merit and perform good things to please the children. It's a strategy to convince people to do good."


However, there are also many people who remain sceptical and have been pouring scorn on the dolls.

Mananya, doesn't concern herself with them and she believes they "don't have anything better to do with their lives."

"They would say that these are ghost dolls. We have never done anything to hurt anyone or take their money. It's not illegal. It's a good thing, not a bad thing."


Believing it's her right to believe is Pantira (not her real name) a 37-year-old housewife who has a seven-year-old daughter.

Apart from her human daughter, she has another two daughters, named Angel and Sofia, which she has been carrying around with her, shopping and running errands, for over a year.

They have their own crib and she likes to feed them Pocky chocolate sticks.

"It's a personal right and I choose to believe it a lot," Pantira said. "For me, I have enough reason to believe. I'm not over the top. I can afford it."

Scene from Lars and the Real Girl in which Lars sits with his doll wife who eats dinner as a flesh-and-blood human (Source: YouTube)


There have been doll crazes in the US such as the Beanie Babies craze of the 1990s but the dolls were not treated as humans.

One recent western film, however, deals with similar issues to Thailand's angel doll craze.

Lars and the Real Girl is a 2007 American-Canadian comedy film starring Ryan Gosling which follows Lars (Gosling), a sweet but socially inept young man who develops a romantic yet platonic relationship with a human doll.

The people around Lars grow as they accept his doll as human to please him and eventually help him through his crisis.

The film received favorable movie reviews from Christian faith-based media and was even recommended as an instructional tool and a means for opening a dialogue on tolerance (see here).

Learn from listening

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  • -friendly: meaning that a business is ready to provide special service for some special group of people with special needs or problems, such as pet owners -
  • a number of: many -
  • accept: to agree to or approve of something - ยอมรับ
  • acceptable: that somebody agrees is of a good enough standard - ที่ยอมรับได้
  • actually: used for stressing what is really true or what really happened - ตามความเป็นจริง
  • amulet: a small object that some people wear around their neck as a protection against evil, bad luck, disease etc - เครื่องราง
  • appear: to be seen - ปรากฏ
  • as if: similar to...; almost the same as...; just like.... -
  • aware (adj): knowing that something exists, or to have knowledge or experience of a particular thing - ทราบ, รับรู้
  • behaviour: the way that someone acts or behaves - พฤติกรรม, การกระทำตัว
  • belief (noun): something that you think is true - ความเชื่อ
  • believe: being fond and think of something to be right and will follow it - เชื่อใจ,ศรัทธา
  • bless: to ask God to protect somebody/something - อวยพร, ทำให้เกิดความศักดิ์สิทธิ์
  • blessing: when someone says or does something to wish you well in life, work or a project, a prayer asking for help and protection - การสวดให้พร, การให้พร
  • blood (noun): the red liquid that flows through the bodies of humans and animals - เลือด
  • carousel: merry-go-round; a ride at a fair or amusement park with children riding on wooden animals - ม้าหมุน
  • cash: money - เงินสด
  • celebrity: someone who is famous, especially in the entertainment business - คนมีชื่อเสียง
  • ceremony (noun): a formal public event - งานพิธี
  • channel: to direct something into a particular place or situation - ใช้ไปในทาง
  • claim (noun): saying that something is true although it has not been proved and other people may not believe it - ข้ออ้าง ข้อกล่าวหา
  • code of conduct: rules of proper behaviour for a particular job, organisation, etc. -
  • comedy: a (type of) film, play or book which is intentionally funny either in its characters or its action - ความตลกขบขัน
  • commercial: for business purposes - เกี่ยวกับการค้า
  • commonly (adverb): ordinarily, generally - อย่างธรรมดา
  • completely (adv): totally, in every way possible - อย่างทั้งหมด
  • conceive: to form an idea, a plan, etc. in your mind; to imagine something - มีความคิด, เกิดขึ้นในใจ
  • council: a group of people chosen to give advice, make rules, do research, provide money - สภา, คณะกรรมการ
  • craze: an enthusiastic interest in something that is shared by many people but that usually does not last very long; a thing that people have a craze for - ความนิยม (ในช่วงระยะสั้นๆ)
  • crisis: an urgent, difficult or dangerous situation - วิกฤตการณ์
  • critic: a person who expresses disapproval of somebody/something and talks about their bad qualities, especially publicly - ผู้วิจารณ์, ผู้จับผิด, ผู้วิเคราะห์
  • critical (adj): saying that someone or something is bad or wrong - จับผิด
  • current: of the present time - ปัจจุบัน
  • dealt with: deal with, to take action to solve a problem รับมือกับ, จัดการกับ -
  • debate: a discussion in which people or groups state different opinions about a subject - การอภิปราย, การโต้วาที, การถกเถียง
  • decade: a period of ten years - ทศวรรษ, ระยะเวลา 10 ปี
  • despair: the feeling that there is no hope and that you can do nothing to improve a difficult or worrying situation - สิ้นหวัง, ความรู้สึกสิ้นหวัง, ความหมดหวัง
  • develop (verb): to gradually grow and improve something so that it becomes more advanced, stronger and successful - พัฒนา
  • devout (adj.): believing strongly in a particular religion and obeying its laws and practices - ซึ่งมีใจศรัทธา, จริงใจ
  • dialogue: formal discussion between two groups or countries, especially when they are trying to solve a problem, end a disagreement, etc - การสนทนา
  • directly (adv): in a direct line or manner; immediately - โดยตรง, ทันที
  • director (noun): the head of a large organisation, especially a public organisation - อธิบดี
  • disappear: to no longer exist; to no longer be in use - หายไป, สาบสูญ, สูญหาย
  • disciplined: controlled - มีวินัย  (ในการใช้จ่าย)
  • donation: money or goods that you give to an organisation, especially one that helps people - เงินหรือสิ่งของบริจาค
  • dress up (verb): wear special formal clothes - แต่งตัวอย่างเป็นทางการ
  • drive: to force something to go in a particular direction or into a particular position by pushing it, hitting it, etc - ตี, ผลัก,ผลักดัน
  • duel: a competition or struggle between two people or groups - การต่อสู้กันตัวต่อตัว, การแข่งขันระหว่าง 2 คน
  • ease: to make a problem, situation or pain less severe or serious - บรรเทา
  • essentially: the true, important or basic nature of somebody/something - เป็นหลัก, โดยพื้นฐาน, ตามความเป็นจริง
  • eventually: at the end of a period of time or at the end of a process - ในที่สุด
  • evil: very bad or cruel - ชั่วร้าย
  • export (noun): something sold and transported to another country - สินค้าออก
  • fad: something that is popular or fashionable only for a short time - กระแสนิยม แฟชั่นสมัยนิยม
  • faithful: staying with or supporting a particular person, organization or belief - จงรักภักดี
  • fantasy: a pleasant situation that you imagine but that is unlikely to happen - การจินตนาการ
  • firing squad (noun): a group of soldiers or police who are ordered to shoot and kill somebody who is found guilty of a crime -
  • flesh (noun): the skin of the human body - ผิวเนื้อของคน
  • followed suit: did the same thing as someone else - ทำตาม
  • for short: the short way of saying something -
  • fortune-teller: a person who tells you what they think will happen to you in the future - หมอดู
  • frenzied (adj): involving a lot of activity and strong emotions in a way that is often violent or frightening and not under control - คลุ้มคลั่ง, บ้าคลั่ง
  • gain: to obtain or win something, especially something that you need or want - ได้รับ
  • general: for most cases and situations - โดยทั่วไป, โดยปกติ, ส่วนมาก
  • go out of their way: try very hard; make a big effort to do something -
  • hairdo: hairstyle,haircut - แบบผม,แบบทรงผม, การแต่งผม, วิธีทำผม, ตัวอย่างทรงผม, รูปแบบของทรงผม
  • headstrong (adj): determined to do things their own way and refusing to listen to advice ซึ่งดึงดัน,ซึ่งรั้น, หัวรั้น - ซึ่งดึงดัน,ซึ่งรั้น, หัวรั้น
  • height (noun): peak; the time when something is at its highest or greatest level - ช่วงเวลาที่พบมากที่สุด
  • improper: not suited or appropriate to the situation - ไม่เหมาะสม ไม่สมควร
  • in fact (adv): actually - โดยแท้จริงแล้ว, จริงๆ แล้ว
  • in line with: following a rule or system; also in accordance with and consistent with - สอดคล้องกับ
  • in short: to summarize... , to say it in a short way... -
  • incantation (noun): special words that are spoken or sung to have a magic effect; the act of speaking or singing these words - การปลุกเสก, การบริกรรมคาถา, การท่องมนตร์
  • indicate: to show that something is true, exists or will happen - แสดง, ให้สัญญาณ
  • inept: not having much ability or skill - ซึ่งขาดความสามารถ
  • instructional: for teaching -
  • intent (noun): your plan or purpose - จุดประสงค์, เจตนา
  • interview: to ask someone questions in a meeting for a newspaper article, television show, etc. The noun form is also interview - สัมภาษณ์, การสัมภาษณ์
  • invest: to spend money on something in order to make it better or more successful - ลงทุน
  • investigate: to try to find out the facts about something in order to learn the truth about it - ตรวจสอบหาความจริง
  • investigation: the process of trying to find out all the details or facts about something in order to discover who or what caused it or how it happened - การสอบสวน, การตรวจสอบหาข้อเท็จจริง
  • issue: a problem that needs to be considered - ประเด็น
  • justify: to show that there is good reason for something - แสดงเหตุผลที่ดีพอ
  • knowledge (noun): all the facts that people know about a subject (example: medical knowledge) - ความรู้
  • known as (verb): has the name .... -
  • lashed out: when someone is criticised angrily - ประนามอย่างรุนแรง
  • lifelike: almost the same as a real living person - เหมือนมีชีวิต,เหมือนจริง
  • likened: similar to - เปรียบเสมือน
  • magical (adj): containing magic; used in magic - พิทยาพล, ฤทธา, มหัศจรรย์, ซึ่งมีเวทมนตร์
  • magically (adv): by magic; using magic - อย่างมีเวทมนตร์, อย่างน่ามหัศจรรย์
  • make sure: to ensure; to make certain that something happens or is done - ให้การยืนยัน, รับรอง, ให้ความมั่นใจ
  • mass: large amounts or numbers - ปริมาณมาก จำนวนมาก
  • meanwhile: at the same time - ในเวลาเดียวกัน
  • medium (noun): a person who says that they can receive messages from people who are dead - ร่างทรง
  • mental health: the state of health of the mind - สุขภาพจิต
  • mistify: very strange and interesting -
  • monastic (adjective): having to do with monks - เกี่ยวกับพระหรือที่อยู่ของพระ
  • nation: a country considered as a group of people with the same language, culture and history, who live in a particular area under one government; all the people in a country - ประเทศ, คนในประเทศ
  • national (adjective): for the whole country - แห่งชาติ, ของชาติ
  • necessity: the fact that something must happen or be done; the need for something; a situation that must happen and that cannot be avoided - ความจำเป็น
  • nursery (noun): a place where children are cared for, a place where children play or sleep - สถานรับเลี้ยงเด็ก
  • observer: a person who watches and analyses a situation - ผู้สังเกตการณ์
  • obsession (noun): the one thing that a person thinks about all the time, a preoccupation - การครอบงำจิตใจ, การฝังแน่นอยู่ในจิตใจ
  • officially: publicly and by somebody who is in a position of authority - อย่างเป็นทางการ
  • on par with: equal to -
  • order (verb): to use your position of authority to tell somebody to do something or say that something must happen - สั่ง
  • originator: creator; a person who has made or invented a particular thing - ผู้ออกแบบ, เจ้าตำรับ, ผู้ประดิษฐ์
  • perform (verb): to carry out; to do something, such as a piece of work, task or duty กระทำ, ทำ, ปฏิบัติ - กระทำ, ทำ, ปฏิบัติ
  • permission: allowing someone to do something - การอนุญาต,การอนุมัติ,การยินยอม
  • permit (verb): to allow someone to do something - อนุญาต, อนุมัติ, ยินยอม
  • phenomenon: someone or something extremely successful, often because of special qualities or abilities -
  • platonic: not involving sex -
  • please: to make someone feel happy and satisfied - ทำให้พอใจ, ทำให้ถูกใจ
  • poodle (noun): a dog with thick curly hair that is sometimes cut into special shapes - สุนัขพันธ์พุดเดิ้ล
  • popular (adj): a situation in which someone or something is liked by many people - เป็นที่นิยม, เป็นที่ชื่นชอบ
  • popularity: a situation in which someone or something is liked by many people - ความเป็นที่นิยม, ความเป็นที่ชื่นชอบ
  • possess: to have or own something - ครอบครอง, ถือครอง
  • possessed: controlled by an evil spirit - ผีเข้า, ถูกครอบงำ
  • practice: a way of doing something - การปฏิบัติ
  • private: intended for or involving a particular person or group of people, not for people in general - ส่วนตัว
  • promote: do activities in order to increase the attendance at an event or sales of a product or service - ส่งเสริม
  • province: one of many divisions of the government of a country into smaller parts - จังหวัด
  • provincial (adj): related to "provinces" , the different parts of a country - ประจำจังหวัด, ส่วนท้องถิ่น
  • psychological: connected with a person's mind and the way in which it works - ทางด้านจิตใจ, ทางจิตวิทยา
  • public: the public; all people; the people in general - มหาชน, ประชาชน
  • purchase: to buy something - ซื้อ
  • raise: to take care of children while they are growing up - เลี้ยงดู
  • reborn (adj): to be born again - เกิดใหม่
  • recommend (verb): to advise someone that they should do something - แนะนำ
  • refuse (verb): to say or show that you will not do something; to say or show that you will not do something that someone has asked you to do - ปฏิเสธ
  • relationship: a sexual or romantic connection between two people - ความสัมพันธ์
  • remain (verb): to stay in the same place; to not leave - ยังอยู่, พักอยู่, รออยู่
  • reportedly: as reported (often used for showing that you are not certain that something you are reporting is true) - ตามที่รายงาน
  • revolution: a situation when people completely change their political system or government, often by force - การปฏิรูป
  • rightly: for a good reason - อย่างถูกต้อง
  • rite: a traditional ceremony, especially a religious one - พิธีกรรม (พระราชพิธี)
  • ritual: a formal ceremony - พิธีการ
  • romantic (adj): connected or concerned with love or a relationship - เกี่ยวกับเรื่องรักใคร่และการผจญภัย
  • routinely: regularly, done often - จำเจ, บ่อยๆ, ซ้ำซาก
  • rubber (noun): a bouncy, elastic material used in car tires and waterproof gloves - กล้ายาง
  • sacred: considered to be holy - ศักดิ์สิทธิ์
  • Sangha: ordained Buddhist monks or nuns - สงฆ์
  • sceptical: having doubts about something that other people think is true or right - สงสัย
  • scores: large numbers of - จำนวนมาก
  • secretariat: a group of senior people within a government or organisation - สำนักเลขาธิการ
  • secure (verb): to get or achieve something - ได้มา
  • session: a formal meeting - ประชุม
  • sign: a piece of evidence that something is happening or that something exists - ร่องรอย
  • sign: an event, an action, a fact, etc. that shows that something exists, is happening or may happen in the future - สัญญาณ
  • sinister: threatening to do harm or to do something evil - เป็นลางร้าย,
  • society (noun): people in general, living together in communities - สังคม
  • spirit (noun): the soul thought of as separate from the body and believed to live on after death; a ghost - วิญญาณ
  • spokesman: a person who speaks on behalf of a group or an organization - โฆษก
  • sprinkle: to shake small amounts of a liquid or a substance over the surface of something - โปรย
  • stuffed: packed; very full of something - แน่น ซึ่งใส่ไว้จนเต็ม
  • suggest: to mention an idea or a plan for somebody else to think about - เสนอ, เสนอแนะ
  • supernatural: caused by forces that cannot be explained by science - สิ่งที่เหนือธรรมชาติ
  • superstition: the belief that particular events happen in a way that cannot be explained by reason or science; the belief that particular events bring good or bad luck - ความเชื่อในทางไสยศาสตร์, ความเชื่อในผีสางเทวดา
  • superstitious: believing in the power of magic or luck - เชื่อโชคลาง
  • support (noun): giving help, encouragement or sympathy to somebody - การสนับสนุน, การเป็นกำลังใจ
  • supreme: most important, or most powerful - สูงสุด
  • surplus (noun): the amount by which the amount of money received is greater than the amount of money spent; more than is needed - จำนวนที่เกิน, ส่วนที่เกิน, เหลือเกิน
  • surveillance: the process of carefully watching a person or place that may be involved in a criminal activity - การตรวจตรา
  • sustainable: able to be successfully continued for a long time - ยั่งยืน, ถาวร
  • symbol: someone or something that represents a particular idea or quality - สัญลักษณ์
  • theme park: a place where young people go to ride fun rides or play games - สวนสนุก
  • tolerance: the willingness to accept somebody/something, especially opinions or behaviour that you may not agree with, or people who are not like you - การยอมรับความคิดเห็นของผู้อื่น, ความอดกลั้น
  • tongue-in-cheek: to do something for fun or as a joke; not seriously; done or spoken with gentle irony and meant as a joke - พูดเหน็บแนมแบบขำๆ; แซว เล่นๆ สนุกๆ ไม่จริงจัง, ไม่จริงใจ
  • tool (noun): a thing that helps you to do your job or to achieve something - เครื่องมือ
  • treasure: to have or keep something that you love and that is extremely valuable to you - รัก
  • tutorial school: a place where students pay to get extra instruction, usually to prepare for examinations -
  • un-: not -
  • urgent: needing to be dealt with immediately - ที่เร่งด่วน
  • urgently: needing to be dealt with immediately - อย่างเร่งด่วน
  • violate: to do something that is against a law, rule or agreement - ฝ่าฝืน, ละเมิด
  • warn: to make someone aware of a possible problem or danger - เตือน
  • weighed in: joined in a discussion, an argument, an activity, etc. by saying something important, persuading somebody, or doing something to help - แสดงความคิดเห็น
  • wisdom: the knowledge that a society or culture has gained over a long period of time - ปัญญา
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