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Thai soap operas trigger outcry over romanticising rape

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The recent real-life rape & murder of a 13-year-old girl on an overnight train has focused national outrage on TV soaps that some say encourage — rape.

A female railway police officer plays with child passengers while their mother goes to buy soft drink at a train carriage for women and children, at Hua Lamphong train station in Bangkok. A recent real-life rape and murder of a 13-year-old girl on an overnight train has focused national outrage on Thai popular culture, and particularly TV soaps for sending messages that trivialise — and some say encouragerape. (AP photo)


Thai soap operas trigger outcry over romantisation of rape

Jocelyn Gecker and Thanyarat Doksome / AP

In a famous scene from Thailand's award-winning soap opera The Power of Shadows, the handsome protagonist gets drunk and rapes the leading lady. He later begs her forgiveness, and they live happily ever after.

Boy Meets Girl, Boy Rapes Girl, Boy Marries Girl. The premise is so common in Thailand's popular prime time melodramas it could be called a national twist on the universal romantic plot line. But calls for change are growing.

The recent real-life rape and murder of a girl on an overnight train in Thailand has focused national outrage on messages in popular culture that trivialise - and some say even encouragerape. Even the powerful general who took over the country in a coup this year had to apologise after suggesting that women who wear bikinis on the beach are vulnerable to sexual assault.

Many in the soap opera industry continue to defend sexual violence, in part, as a key to high ratings in a fiercely competitive industry that draws more than 18 million viewers a night to network television, nearly a quarter of Thailand's population.

Award-winning director Sitthiwat Tappan even describes some rape scenes as a sort of public service.

"There might be a scene where a woman is dressed sexy, and she walks past a man who has been drinking, and it shows on his face that he's aroused and wants her," Mr Sitthiwat said. "In the end, she succumbs to the physical power of the man."

"Scenes like this try to teach society that women should not travel alone or wear revealing clothes," the director said. "And men shouldn't drink."

Actress Pimthong Washirakom poses after an interview in Bangkok. The up-and-coming starlet’s debut role as a dangerously beautiful “bad girl” who gets raped in the soap The Rising Sun aired last month. Ms Pimthong said that filming of the scene, in which a police detective locks her in his office and rapes her, took place after the girl's rape on the train in July. As the cameras rolled, she broke down in tears. (AP photo)

But rapists are seldom punished in TV melodramas, and their victims rarely talk about it. That much, at least, is reflected in real life.

Last year, the Public Health Ministry said its hotlines received 31,866 calls from victims of rape or sexual assault. But police that year filed only 3,300 rape cases, and made just 2,245 arrests. Even the hotline number is believed to be far lower than the actual number of assaults in this Southeast Asian country of 67 million.

Public concern about rape in Thai society grew this summer, after a 13-year-old girl was raped on an overnight train, then suffocated and thrown out the window. A 22-year-old train employee has been convicted of the attack and sentenced to death, and the railway authority has introduced a women-and-children-only sleeper carriage with policewomen as guards.

Indignant newspaper editorials and TV talk shows have triggered a national conversation, and an online petition asking soap operas to stop romanticising rape has attracted more than 30,000 signatures.

"I'm not saying soap operas are the cause of rape in Thailand. But I believe they are part of the problem," said Nitipan Wiprawit, a 36-year-old architect who launched the petition. "Soap operas send the message that rape is acceptable. This is something that needs to stop."

As a result of Nitipan's petition, the national broadcasting commission has organised roundtables that bring directors and screenwriters together with health and human rights experts to discuss the messages soap operas deliver. The latest one focused on how TV sexual violence influences Thai children, who are often raised on a steady diet of night-time soaps that parents switch on after dinner.

"Some producers might say that what they're producing doesn't have an impact on people, but I assure you it does," Kemporn Wirunrapan, of Thailand's Child and Youth Media Institute, told the forum. "The more children see repetitive images of violence, the more it will be reinforced in their minds."

In a poll of more than 2,000 youths conducted by Thailand's Assumption University in 2008, more than 20% of 13-19-year olds said rape scenes were their favourite part of TV shows. The same percentage of teenagers said they found rape to be a normal and acceptable act in society.

Yossinee Nanakorn, producer of one of Thailand's best-known soaps Prisoner of Love, said rape scenes are sometimes essential to plot lines.

"Soap operas are all about conflict. Without conflict there's no story," she said. "We try to avoid rape scenes, but if it helps drive the story then we keep it."

The idea that some forms of sexual violence are acceptable is reflected even in the Thai language.

The word "blum" which translates roughly as "wrestling," is how Thais describe unconsensual sex that a man initiates to make a woman fall in love with him. It is considered different from khom-kheun, the criminal act of rape.

"Blum" is what transpires in The Power of Shadows, says Arunosha Bhanupan, producer of the soap, which aired in 2012 and recorded the highest ratings in the history of its network.

"In theatrical terms, it was an act of love," the producer said, referring to the scene where the lead actor grabs the heroine and rapes her after she slaps him and screams, "Let me go!"

"It wasn't rape. It was more romantic, because they were in love."

That is one type of soap-opera rape scene: the seduction of a "good girl." Thai soaps also have "bad girls," for whom rape is depicted as punishment for behaviour deemed immoral, like dressing provocatively and promiscuity.

Feminist scholar Chalidaporn Songsamphan said rape fantasies in Thai culture stem in part from traditional beliefs that it is improper for women to show sexual desire before marriage.

A Thai family watches a soap opera in Bangkok. A recent real-life rape and murder of a 13-year-old girl on an overnight train in Thailand has focused national outrage on Thai popular culture, and particularly TV soaps for sending messages that trivialise - and some say encourage - rape. (AP photo)

"When men initiate sex, women have to try to reject it, or say no, to show they are innocent sexually," said Ms Chalidaporn, a women's studies professor at Bangkok's Thammasat University. "Rape scenes on television reflect this kind of thinking." 

Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha stumbled into the debate with a comment he made last month, soon after the bodies of two British tourists were found bludgeoned to death on a Koh Tao beach. He said women who wear bikinis in Thailand will be safe "only if they are not beautiful," a remark instantly ridiculed on social media as chauvinistic and insensitive to the female victim, who had been photographed in a bikini prior to her rape and murder. Gen Prayut apologised for having "spoken too harshly."

Another high-profile slip-up came last month when Durex Thailand released an online advertisement saying: "28% of women who resist eventually give in" - an ad viewed as encouraging its male customers to rape. The condom maker quickly pulled the ad from its Thai Facebook page and issued an apology for the "inappropriate" post.

For some actresses, the reality of rape has exposed the flaws in how it is dramatised on television.

Up-and-coming star Pimthong Washirakom played a "bad girl" in the series The Rising Sun who is raped by a police detective after he locks her in his office. As the cameras rolled, the 22-year-old's thoughts drifted to the child whose body was thrown from the train.

"I felt like the girl in the news," she said. "I thought of the 13-year-old girl, and tears started running down my face."

Her crying, and violent portions of the rape scene, were edited out of the episode, which ran last month. The cuts drew complaints from some of the cast and crew, but Pimthong supported them.

"Sometimes, viewers don't have the right judgment and might imitate what they see," she said. "Our society is deteriorating every day, so we have to cut certain scenes off. Kids are definitely watching this show. Why would we let them watch a rape scene?"

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acceptable : that somebody agrees is of a good enough standard - ที่ยอมรับได้

act : an action - การกระทำ

actor (noun): a person in a drama on TV, a movie or on stage - นักแสดงชาย

actress (noun): a woman who performs on the stage, on television or in films/movies, especially as a profession - นักแสดงหญิง

advertisement (noun): advert; a short piece of video or words with pictures that makes people interesting in buying some product - การโฆษณา

air : to broadcast; to send out a programme on television or radio - ออกอากาศ, กระจายเสียง,กระจายข่าว

apologise : to say you are sorry for doing something wrong or for causing a problem - ขอโทษ

apology : an act of saying sorry - คำขอโทษ

architect : a person whose job is to design new buildings and make certain that they are built correctly - สถาปนิก

arouse : to cause someone to have a particular feeling - กระตุ้น

arrest : (of the police or, in this case, soldiers) to take someone under control because they are believed to have committed a crime - จับกุม

as a result of : because of -

assault (noun): a sudden, violent attack - การทำร้าย

assure : to tell someone that something is true or will definitely happen - ให้ความมั่นใจ, ยืนยัน

at least (adv): used to add a positive comment about a negative situation - อย่างน้อย

attack : to try to score points against an opponent in a game or sport - บุก

attract : to cause someone to be interested in something - ดึงดูดความสนใจ

authority (noun): a person or government agency who has the power to make decisions or enforce the law - เจ้าหน้าที่ผู้มีอำนาจ

avoid : to stay away from; to not use - หลีกเลี่ยง

award : a prize or a sum of money that is given to someone following an official decision - รางวัล

beg : to ask somebody for something especially in an anxious way because you want or need it very much - อ้อนวอน, ขอร้อง

behaviour : the way that someone acts or behaves - พฤติกรรม, การกระทำตัว

belief (noun): something that you think is true - ความเชื่อ

bludgeon (verb): to hit somebody several times with a heavy object - ตีด้วยดิ้ว,ตีด้วยกระบอง

call (noun): a request, an order or a demand for somebody to do something or to go somewhere - ข้อเรียกร้อง

carriage : one of the vehicles that are joined together to make a train - ตู้โดยสาร

case : a matter that is being officially investigated, especially by the police - คดี

cast : the actors in a film, play or show - คนแสดง

chauvinistic : when a man does something just thinking of men and not of woman; done without consideration or concern of women -

comment (noun): expressing an opinion - การแสดงความคิดเห็น

common : ordinary; not unusual or special - ที่เกิดขึ้นทุกวัน, ธรรมดา

competitive : involving competition - มีการแข่งขัน

complaint : when someone says that something is wrong or not satisfactory - การบ่น, ข้อที่ไม่พอใจ

concern : a worry - ความกังวล

condom (noun): a thin rubber covering that a man wears over his penis during sex to stop a woman from becoming pregnant or to protect against disease - ถุงยาง

conduct : to carry out — - ดำเนิน

conflict : an angry disagreement between people or groups - ความขัดแย้ง

consider : to regard as; to think of as - ถือว่า

conversation (noun): when two or more people are talking about something - การสนทนา, การพูดคุย

convicted : having been proven guilty of a crime by a court of law - ต้องโทษ, ได้รับการพิสูจน์ว่าข้อกล่าวหามีความผิดจริง

coup : the seizure of power in a country by a group of people, usually members of the armed forces - รัฐประหาร

crew (noun): a group of people who work together to do a job - กลุ่มคนที่ทำงานร่วมกัน

criminal : illegal; against the law - ผิดกฎหมาย, นอกกฎหมาย

culture (noun): the customs and beliefs, art, way of life and social organization of a particular country or group - วัฒนธรรม

debate : a discussion in which people or groups state different opinions about a subject - การอภิปราย, การโต้วาที, การถกเถียง

deemed : considered - เห็นว่า ถือว่า

defend : to say things to support someone or something - ปกป้อง

definitely : without any doubt; for certain - อย่างแน่นอน

depict : to represent or show something in a picture or story - พรรณนา, บรรยายให้เห็นภาพ

desire : a strong wish to have or do something - ความอยาก, ความประสงค์, ความต้องการ

detective : a person, especially a police officer, whose job is to examine crimes and catch criminals - นักสืบ; ผู้สืบสวน

deteriorating (adj): becoming worse - ทรุดโทรม, เสื่อมโทรม, เลวลง, ชำรุด

diet : the food and drink usually taken by a person or group - อาหาร, สิ่งที่กินได้

director : a person in charge of a film/movie or play who tells the actors and staff what to do - ผู้กำกับ (ทางภาพยนตร์)

dramatise : the process of making something into an interesting story for TV or a movie -

draw : to attract or interest somebody, often to cause them to go somewhere - ดึงดูดความสนใจ

drive : to force something to go in a particular direction or into a particular position by pushing it, hitting it, etc - ตี, ผลัก,ผลักดัน

drunk : having had too much alcohol to drink, i.e., drunk or intoxicated - มึนเมา

edit : to prepare a text, tape or film for use by correcting mistakes and deciding what will be removed and what will be kept in, etc - ตัดตอ

editorial : a newspaper article in which the editor gives their opinion on an issue in the news - บทบรรณาธิการ

employee : someone who is paid regularly to work for a person or an organisation - ลูกจ้าง

encourage : to cause someone to be more likely to happy - กระตุ้น

encourage : to cause someone to want to do something - กระตุ้น ให้การสนับสนุน

episode : one of the single parts into which a story is divided, especially when it is broadcast on the television or radio - ตอน

essential : necessary - ที่จำเป็น

eventually : at the end of a period of time or at the end of a process - ในที่สุด

expert : someone who has a particular skill or who knows a lot about a particular subject - ผู้เชี่ยวชาญ

exposed : made known; uncovered - เปิดเผยต่อ

fantasy : a pleasant situation that you imagine but that is unlikely to happen - การจินตนาการ

favourite (adj): something/someone you like the best of all similar things - ที่ชอบมากที่สุด, ที่โปรดปราน, ของโปรด

female : being a woman or a girl - สตรี, ผู้หญิง, เพศหญิ

fiercely : very strongly - อย่างรุนแรง, อย่างดุเดือด

file : to take official action like making a complaint - ยื่น, ยื่นคำร้อง

flaw : a fault; something wrong with something - ข้อบกพร่อง

focus : to give attention, effort, etc. to one particular subject, situation or person rather than another - เพ่งความสนใจ

focus (verb): to aim onto a particular point - เล็ง, เพ่ง

forgiveness : the act of forgiving somebody; willingness to forgive somebody - การให้อภัย, การอภัยโทษ

form : the particular way something is, seems, looks or is presented; a type or variety of something - รูปแบบ, รูปทรง

forum (noun): a place where people can express their ideas and opinions - ที่แสดงความคิดเห็น, การประชุมแสดงความคิดเห็น

general (noun): an officer of very high rank in the army, the air force, the marines or the police - พลเอก, นายพล

give in : to say that you will do something after saying you would not, accepting after refusing -

grab : to take or hold somebody/something with your hand suddenly, firmly or roughly - จับ,ฉวย,คว้า,แย่ง

guard : a person who protects a place or people - ยาม, ผู้ดูแล, ยามรักษาการณ์

handsome : attractive; good-looking - รูปหล่อ

harshly (adv): in a strong, cruel, severe and unkind way - อย่างรุนแรง

heroine : a hero who is a woman; a person admired by many people for doing something brave or good - วีรบุรุษ

high-profile (adj): creating a lot of public attention - เป็นที่สนใจจากคนในสังคม

hotline : a telephone number that people can call for information - โทรศัพท์สายตรงที่จัดไว้สำหรับเหตุเร่งด่วนหรือเฉพาะเรื่อง

human rights : the basic rights which it is generally considered all people should have, such as justice and the freedom to say what you think - สิทธิมนุษยชน

image : a photograph, painting, or other work of art that represents a person or thing - รูปภาพ

imitate : to copy something - เลียนแบบ

immorality (noun): the bad things that people do that are not "moral" - การผิดศีลธรรม, การผิดทำนองคลองธรรม

impact (noun): an effect or influence - ผลกระทบ

improper : not suited or appropriate to the situation - ไม่เหมาะสม ไม่สมควร

inappropriate : unsuitable - ซึ่งไม่เหมาะสม

influence : to affect or change how someone or something develops, behaves or thinks - มีอิทธิพลต่อ, ชักจูง อำนาจบังคับ

initiate : to make something start - ริเริ่ม

innocent : a person who has not done anything wrong - ผู้บริสุทธิ์

insensitive (adj): not realizing or caring how other people feel, and therefore likely to hurt or offend them - v

instantly : immediately - ทันที, ทันทีทันใด, ในไม่ช้า

issue : to give or provide something official - แจกจ่าย

judgment : an opinion that you have after thinking (carefully) about something - การตัดสินใจ, การพิจารณา

key (noun): a thing that makes you able to understand or achieve something - กุญแจ, คำเฉลย, คำไขของปัญหา, คำไข, คีย์

latest (adj): newest; most recent - ] ล่าสุด, See also: ทันสมัยที่สุด, เกิดหลังสุด

launch : starting something - การเริ่มต้น

lead : the main part in a play, film/movie, etc; the person who plays this part - ตัวเอก, นางเอก, พระเอก

leading lady : the most important actress in a movie; star - ผู้แสดงนำฝ่ายหญิง

lock (noun): used to close a door, drawer or other place so that other people cannot enter - กุญแจ

male : being a man or a boy - ผู้ชาย

marriage : the ceremony in which two people become husband and wife; the legal relationship between a husband and wife - การแต่งงาน, การสมรส, ภาวะที่แต่งงานกัน

message : a piece of written or spoken information that you send to someone, especially when you cannot speak to them directly - ข่าวสาร, ข้อความ

message : an important idea that someone is trying to communicate - ประเด็น, เนื้อความ

mind : the part of a person that makes them able to be aware of things, to think and to feel; your ability to think and reason; your intelligence; the particular way that somebody thinks - สติปัญญา, จิตใจ, ความรู้สึกนึกคิด

ministry : a government department that has a particular area of responsibility - กระทรวง

murder (noun): the crime of intentionally killing a person - ฆาตกรรม

national (adjective): for the whole country - แห่งชาติ, ของชาติ

network : telecommunications network, a telephone or cable TV network -

normal (adj.): typical, usual or ordinary; what you would expect - ปกติ, ภาวะปกติ

online : controlled by or connected to a computer or to the Internet - ออนไลน์, การเชื่อมต่อผ่านระบบเครือข่ายทางคอมพิวเตอร์

outrage : extreme anger - ความโกรธอย่างรุนแรง

overnight : the period of one night - ข้ามคืน

percentage (noun): an amount divided by 100 - อัตราร้อยละ, จำนวนร้อยละ, อัตราต่อหนึ่งร้อย

petition : a document signed by a large number of people demanding or requesting some action from the government or another authority - การถวายฎีกา,การร้องเรียน

physical : connected with a person's body - เกี่ยวกับร่างกาย

plot : the series of events that form the story of a novel, play, film/movie, etc. - เนื้อเรื่อง

poll : an occasion when a lot of people are asked about what they feel about something - การสำรวจความคิดเห็น

popular (adj): a situation in which someone or something is liked by many people - เป็นที่นิยม, เป็นที่ชื่นชอบ

popular culture : the cultural and entertainment things that large numbers of people like such popular television shows, singers or movies -

population : a particular group of people or animals living in a particular area - กลุ่มที่อาศัยอยู่ในที่เดียวกัน

portion : a part of something - ส่วน

post : to put a notice, etc. in a public place so that people can see it - ปิดประกาศ

power : physical force that does work - พลัง, กำลัง, แรง

powerful (adj.): being able to control and influence people and events - ที่มีอิทธิพล

prime time (adj.): the period of time during the day when TV has the most people watching - ช่วงเวลาที่มีผู้ชมโทรทัศน์มากที่สุด

produce : making the practical and financial arrangements needed to make a film, play, television or radio programme - อำนวยการสร้างภาพยนต์, ผลิต

producer : a person who makes the practical and financial arrangements needed to make a film, play, television or radio programme - ผู้อำนวยการสร้างภาพยนต์, ผู้ผลิต

professor : a university teacher of the highest rank - ศาสตราจารย์

protagonist : the main character in a play, book or story -

provocative : causing an angry reaction, usually intentionally - กวนโทสะ

public : the public; all people; the people in general - มหาชน, ประชาชน

public health (noun): the health of all the people in a country, city or community and their health issues; also the name of a government department - การสาธารณสุข

pull (verb): to take something away; to withdraw something ถอน - ถอน

punish : to make somebody suffer because they have broken the law or done something wrong - ทำโทษ

punishment : an act or a way of punishing somebody - การลงโทษ

quarter : one of four equal parts of something; 25 percent - หนึ่งในสี่ส่วน

railway : the whole transportation system of trains connecting stations along rail tracks - รางรถไฟ, ระบบทางรถไฟ

raise : to take care of children while they are growing up - เลี้ยงดู

rape : the crime of forcefully having sex with someone against their wish - การข่มขืน

rape : to commit the crime of forcefully having sex with someone against their wish - ข่มขืน

rapist : someone who commits the crime of forcing someone to have sex -

rarely : not happening often - นานๆ ครั้ง, ไม่บ่อย

ratings (noun): a measure of the a TV show's popularity and how large its audience is -

reality : what is actually happening - ความเป็นจริง

recent : happening or starting a short time ago - เร็วๆ นี้

refer : to mention someone or something - อ้างถึง, อ้างอิง

reflect : to show - สะท้อน แสดงถึง

reinforced : made stronger - เสริมให้แข็งแรงขึ้น

reject : to not accept something - ปฏิเสธ ไม่ยอมรับ

release : the act of making something available to the public - การนำออกแสดง, การออกวางจำหน่าย

remark : something said - คำพูด

repetitive : saying or doing the same thing many times, so that it becomes boring - ซึ่งเกิดซ้ำๆ, ซึ่งกล่าวซ้ำ

resist : to oppose or fight against someone or something - ต้านทาน, ต้าน, ขัดขวาง,

reveal : to show something that was covered, hidden or not known - เปิดเผย ทำให้ปรากฎ

ridicule : to make somebody/something look silly by laughing at them or it in an unkind way - เยาะเย้ย, ล้อเลียน

romantic (adj): believing that things are more exciting or better than they really are, dreamy, idealistic, overuse of imagination - เพ้อฝัน, ในอุดมคติ, เต็มไปด้วยจินตนาการ

romanticise : to make something seem good, to make it seem romantic or full of love -

roughly : approximately but not exactly - โดยประมาณ, อย่างคร่าวๆ

roundtable : a meeting of many people gathered together to talk about an issue, in which everyone has same status and rights -

scene : a part of a film/movie, play or book in which the action happens in one place or is of one particular type - ฉาก, ตอน

scream : to cry or say something loudly and usually on a high note, especially because of strong emotions such as fear, excitement or anger - กรีดร้อง

screenwriter : a person who writes a TV or movie script -

seduction : when a person persuades another person to have sex with them - การล่อใจ, การล่อลวง

sentence  : (of a court of law) to give a punishment - ลงโทษ

sexually provocative : creating sexual feelings or thoughts in other people - ตื่นตัว

slap : a quick hit with the flat part of the hand - ตบ

slip-up (noun): a mistake, especially a careless one - ความบกพร่อง, ความผิดพลาด

soap opera : a story about the lives and problems of a group of people which is broadcast every day or several times a week on television or radio - เรื่องน้ำเน่า

social media : the use of web-based and mobile technologies to turn communication into an interactive dialogue, e.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc. - เครือข่ายสังคมออนไลน์

society (noun): people in general, living together in communities - สังคม

steady : staying at the same level, speed, value etc - ไม่เปลี่ยนแปลง, สม่ำเสมอ

stem from : to be caused by - เกิดจาก

stumble : to make a mistake when you are trying to achieve something - ทำพลาด, สะดุด

succumb : to lose your ability to fight against someone or something, and to allow them to control or persuade you - พ่ายแพ้ ยอมจำนน

suffocate (verb): to die because there is no air to breathe; to kill somebody by not letting them breathe air - หายใจไม่ออก, ทำให้หายใจไม่ออก

suggest (verb): hint, imply, saying that something might be true - ทำให้นึกถึง, ข้อชวนคิด

tears (noun): drops of water that come from your eyes when you cry or when something (dust, gas, etc.) has entered your eyes - น้ำตา

teenager : a person who is between the ages of 13-19 - บุคคลที่มีอายุระหว่าง 13-19 ปี, คนรุ่นหนุ่มรุ่นสาว, วัยรุ่น

term : to use a particular name or word to describe somebody/something - ตั้งชื่อ, เรียกชื่อ

theatrical (adj): exaggerated in order to attract attention or create a particular effect - โอ้อวด หรูหราหรือมารยา

traditional (adj): of a custom, a way of life or a way of doing things that has not changed for a long time - เป็นประเพณี, ตามธรรมเนียม, ตามที่ปฏิบัติกันมา

translate : to express the meaning of speech or writing in a different language - แปล

transpire : to happen - เกิดขึ้น

trigger : to cause - ก่อให้เกิด กระตุ้น

trivialise : to make something seem not very important or serious - ทำให้เล็ก หรือเบาบางลง

twist : to bend or turn into a different shape - ทำให้ผิดรูปร่าง

twist : making something different in an interesting way -

unconsensual : when people do not agree to something, not consensual -

universal : involving everything/everyone - ทั่วไป

up-and-coming : likely to achieve success soon or in the near future - มีท่าทีว่าจะประสบความสำเร็จ

victim : someone who has been affected by a bad situation, such as a disaster, illness or an accident - เหยื่อผู้เคราะห์ร้าย

viewer : a person who watches TV -

violence : physical force with the deliberate intention of causing damage to property or injury or death to people - ความรุนแรง, การใช้กำลังทำลาย

violent : involving or caused by physical force that is intended to hurt or kill somebody - รุนแรง, ร้ายแรง, สาหัส

vulnerable : easily damaged or harmed - ซึ่งถูกทำลายได้ง่าย

wrestling : a sport in which two people fight by holding each other in special positions and throwing each other - กีฬามวยปล้ำ

youth : young people considered as a group - เยาวชน, คนวัยหนุ่มสาว


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