Computer Crimes Act and spam
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Computer Crimes Act and spam

Changes in the law, including a section that lays out safe-harbour rules, affect how businesses can send unsolicited email to the public

As the government seeks to elevate Thailand to the status of a high-income nation, the formation of a digital platform through the Thailand 4.0 programme is seen as an essential element of economic transformation. Its focus is on enhancing research and development, science and technology, and creative thinking and innovation.

To facilitate this economic change, the government and the National Legislative Assembly have made a number of changes to the law, including updates to the Computer Crimes Act (CCA) that were enacted in early 2017. The Digital Economy and Society (DE) Ministry is responsible for issuing subordinate regulations under the Act.

Spam e-message offences: Section 11 of the old CCA previously prohibited sending to another person any email or computer data that concealed or forged its source in a manner that disturbed the normal use of another's computer system. However, it did not apply to disturbing or bothering the recipient themselves.

The new version has been amended in direct response to developments in technology-related activities, and now makes it an offence to send an email, or computer data, in a manner that disturbs the recipient and that does not allow the recipient to opt out or unsubscribe.

In addition, the DE minister has issued a notification under the new Section 11 that sets out the characteristics and methods of sending emails and data, and characteristics of computer data or emails that are not considered to cause a disturbance to the recipient. This notification acts as a set of "safe-harbour rules" for business operators when sending e-messages to customers, prospective customers, or even to business partners or third parties.

Safe-harbour rules: The notification defines a "sender" as any person who intends to send company data or emails primarily for commercial purposes, and any website, application, and social media operators that advertise or support the sending of such data or emails. However, it does not include telecommunications business operators that act as intermediaries for transmitting such data or emails.

The following types of e-messages are assumed not to cause a disturbance to the recipient if they are:

Sent to another person as evidence of an agreed contractual transaction, or for compliance with law, or for expressing a relationship or a legal relationship between each other.

Sent by a government body that enforces the law, for the purpose of providing communications that are not for commercial purposes.

Sent by an educational institution, a charitable body, or other organisations, which is not for commercial purposes.

Sent in a legal manner that does not violate any individual rights and which is not for commercial purposes.

The notification states that e-messages for commercial purposes (and not within the scope of the four examples above) are only permissible when consent has been obtained from the recipient, and the following conditions are met:

E-messages must specify the signs, details, and processes that will enable the recipient to opt out of or unsubscribe from receiving such e-messages, including technical measures allowing the recipient to do so quickly.

After a request to unsubscribe has been made, the sender must suspend the sending of e-messages to the recipient immediately or, in certain circumstances, within seven days from the receipt of the request.

It is strictly prohibited for the process or request form for opting out/unsubscribing to be conditional or to divert for any additional commercial purposes (for example, if clicking the opt-out request routes the user to other websites or other sales distribution channels).

If the sender continues to send e-messages to the recipient after a request has been made, the recipient may send another request, in writing, by way of an email, registered mail with return receipt, or any other way by which they can confirm receipt. If the sender continues to send e-messages after receiving a request of this nature, the sender is deemed to be committing the spam offence under Section 11 of the CCA.

Practical issues: It remains to be seen how the requirements can be complied with in practice. For example, some businesses have asked how they should obtain consent from the recipient and whether implied consent could be acceptable.

Since this spam e-message offence could attract a maximum fine of 200,000 baht per spam communication, companies that engage in online business activities need to proceed with caution in their electronic marketing and adhere to the safe-harbour rules in order to avoid exposure to potential regulatory penalties.

Though the notification provides further guidance and clarification on the spam e-message offence and what business operators should do to avoid committing it, there will still be a number of practical issues on compliance, going forward, that will require further interpretation.

The notification grants the permanent secretary of the DE Ministry the power to interpret and consider any issues resulting from any actions that arise from the notification, and companies would be well advised to be alert for any such interpretations in the near future.

This article was prepared by Athistha (Nop) Chitranukroh, of counsel in the corporate and commercial department at Tilleke & Gibbins. Please send any comments or questions to Andrew Stoutley at

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