Protest leader Jatupat "Pai Daodin" Boonpathararaksa was arrested on Monday during a rally in front of the Narcotics Suppression Bureau (NSB) demanding the release of protesters detained during anti-government demonstrations on Sunday.
Mr Jatupat and a group of protesters from the "Talu Fah" group gathered outside the NSB office on Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, where some of the arrested were detained.
They were met by three companies of crowd control police deployed outside the NSB office.
The protesters sprayed paint on a wall, a fence and the road before they were detained and whisked away in a police transport vehicle.
Pol Maj Gen Piya Tawichai, deputy commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Bureau, said 11 people were arrested during Sunday's protests and taken to the Border Patrol Police Division 1 in Pathum Thani's Khlong Luang district as well as the NSB.
The suspects were charged with violating the emergency decree, the communicable disease control law and the traffic law among other offences.
Pol Maj Gen Piya said 13 police personnel were injured in Sundays' protests. He insisted officers followed standard procedures in dispersing demonstrators who broke through police barriers.
Five protest groups held demonstrations on Sunday, including a "car mob" rally near the Veterans General Hospital on Vibhavadi Rangsit Road. The protesters threw objects and firecrackers at police, who fired rubber bullets, a water cannon and tear gas in response.
Pol Maj Gen Piya also defended police conduct following the circulation of a photo showing a policeman pointing a gun at a protester on a motorcycle.
He insisted that the police officer did not over-react and the protester was not shot. He said it was a standard tactic as some protesters posed a threat to officers' safety.
Three anti-government groups on Monday denounced the police's use of force against the protesters on Sunday.
Talu Fah, Ratsadon and United Front of Thammasat and Demonstration groups accused police of using force against the demonstrators after the rally ended.
Mr Jatupat and a number of activists were moved to the Border Patrol Police Division 1 in Pathum Thani, where a group of protesters gathered there demanding their release.
Scenes from a "car mob" rally in Bangkok on Sunday (Video: Jetjaras Na Ranong)